Studying Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases in Zebrafish
- Hale, A.J., den Hertog, J.
- Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 1447: 351-72 (Chapter)
- Registered Authors
- den Hertog, Jeroen
- Microinjection, PTP, Protein-tyrosine phosphatases, Regeneration assay, Tissue lysis, Zebrafish
- MeSH Terms
- Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism
- Embryo, Nonmammalian/physiology*
- Embryo, Nonmammalian/ultrastructure
- Equipment Design
- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/isolation & purification
- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism*
- 27514815 Full text @ Meth. Mol. Biol.
Hale, A.J., den Hertog, J. (2016) Studying Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases in Zebrafish. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1447:351-72.
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a large family of signal transduction regulators that have an essential role in normal development and physiology. Aberrant activation or inactivation of PTPs is at the basis of many human diseases. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is being used extensively to model major aspects of development and disease as well as the mechanism of regeneration of limbs and vital organs, and most classical PTPs have been identified in zebrafish. Zebrafish is an excellent model system for biomedical research because the genome is sequenced, zebrafish produce a large number of offspring, the eggs develop outside the mother and are transparent, facilitating intravital imaging, and transgenesis and (site-directed) mutagenesis are feasible. Together, these traits make zebrafish amenable for the analysis of gene and protein function. In this chapter we cover three manipulations of zebrafish embryos that we have used to study the effects of PTPs in development, regeneration, and biochemistry. Microinjection at the one-cell stage is at the basis of many zebrafish experiments and is described first. This is followed by a description for measuring regeneration of the embryonic caudal fin, a powerful and robust physiological assay. Finally, the considerable but manageable troubleshooting of several complications associated with preparing zebrafish embryos for immunoblotting is explained. Overall, this chapter provides detailed protocols for manipulating zebrafish embryo samples with a compilation of tips collected through extensive experience from the zebrafish research community.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes