Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Md1 Splice Variants That Regulate Innate Immunity through Differential Induction of NF-кB
- Candel, S., Tyrkalska, S.D., García-Moreno, D., Meseguer, J., Mulero, V.
- Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 197(4): 1379-88 (Journal)
- Registered Authors
- Mulero, Victor
- MeSH Terms
- Antigens, Surface/immunology*
- Base Sequence
- Blotting, Western
- HEK293 Cells
- Immunity, Innate/immunology*
- Mice, Inbred BALB C
- NF-kappa B/biosynthesis*
- Protein Isoforms/immunology
- Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
- Zebrafish Proteins/immunology*
- 27402697 Full text @ J. Immunol.
Candel, S., Tyrkalska, S.D., García-Moreno, D., Meseguer, J., Mulero, V. (2016) Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Md1 Splice Variants That Regulate Innate Immunity through Differential Induction of NF-кB. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 197(4):1379-88.
Although in mammals the TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor (MD)2/CD14 complex is responsible for the recognition of bacterial LPS, and it is known that the RP105/MD1 complex negatively regulates TLR4 signaling, the evolutionary history of LPS recognition remains enigmatic. Thus, zebrafish has orthologs of mammalian TLR4 (Tlr4a and Tlr4b), RP105, and MD1, but MD2 and CD14 seem to be absent from all fish genomes available to date. In addition, and to make the story more intriguing, zebrafish Tlr4a and Tlr4b do not recognize LPS, whereas the zebrafish Rp105/Md1 complex unexpectedly participates in the regulation of innate immunity and viral resistance. In this work, we report the identification of two novel splice variants of Md1, which are expressed at similar levels as full-length Md1 in the main immune-related organs of zebrafish and are highly induced upon viral infection. One of these splice variants, which is also expressed by mouse macrophages, lacks three conserved cysteine residues that have been shown to form disulfide bonds that are crucial for the three-dimensional structure of the MD-2-related lipid recognition domain of Md1. Functional studies in zebrafish demonstrate that this evolutionarily conserved splice variant shows higher antiviral activity than full-length Md1, but reduced proinflammatory activity, due to an impaired ability to activate the master regulator of inflammation, NF-κB. These results uncover a previously unappreciated evolutionarily conserved Md1 splice variant with important functions in the regulation of innate immunity and the antiviral response in zebrafish, and point to the need for additional functional studies in mammals on this little explored molecule.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes