Haploinsufficiency of Def Activates p53-Dependent TGFbeta Signalling and Causes Scar Formation after Partial Hepatectomy

Zhu, Z., Chen, J., Xiong, J.W., Peng, J.
PLoS One   9: e96576 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Peng, Jinrong, Xiong, Jing-Wei
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Cicatrix/genetics
  • Cicatrix/metabolism
  • Haploinsufficiency/genetics*
  • Hepatectomy/adverse effects*
  • Liver/metabolism
  • Liver/pathology
  • Liver Regeneration/genetics
  • Signal Transduction/genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
  • Up-Regulation/genetics
  • Zebrafish/genetics*
  • Zebrafish/metabolism
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics*
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
24801718 Full text @ PLoS One
The metazoan liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate lost liver mass without leaving a scar following partial hepatectomy (PH). Whilst previous studies have identified components of several different signaling pathways that are essential for activation of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, the mechanisms that enable such regeneration to occur without accompanying scar formation remain poorly understood. Here we use the adult zebrafish liver, which can regenerate within two weeks following PH, as a new genetic model to address this important question. We focus on the role of Digestive-organ-expansion-factor (Def), a nucleolar protein which has recently been shown to complex with calpain3 (Capn3) to mediate p53 degradation specifically in the nucleolus, in liver regeneration. Firstly, we show that Def expression is up-regulated in the wild-type liver following amputation, and that the defhi429/+ heteroozygous mutant (def+/-) suffers from haploinsufficiency of Def in the liver. We then show that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is up-regulated in the def+/- liver, which leads to distortion of the migration and the clearance of leukocytes after PH. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signalling is thus activated in the wound epidermis in def+/- due to a prolonged inflammatory response, which leads to fibrosis at the amputation site. Fibrotic scar formation in def+/- is blocked by the over-expression of Def, by the loss-of-function of p53, and by treatment with anti-inflammation drug dexamethasone or TGFβ-signalling inhibitor SB431542. We finally show that the Def- p53 pathway suppresses fibrotic scar formation, at least in part, through the regulation of the expression of the pro-inflammatory factor, high-mobility group box 1. We conclude that the novel Def- p53 nucleolar pathway functions specifically to prevent a scar formation at the amputation site in a normal amputated liver.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes