Ichimura, K., Bubenshchikova, E., Powell, R., Fukuyo, Y., Nakamura, T., Tran, U., Oda, S., Tanaka, M., Wessely, O., Kurihara, H., Sakai, T., and Obara, T. (2012) A comparative analysis of glomerulus development in the pronephros of medaka and zebrafish. PLoS One. 7(9):e45286.
The glomerulus of the vertebrate kidney links the vasculature to the excretory system and produces the primary urine. It is a component of every single nephron in the complex mammalian metanephros and also in the primitive pronephros of fish and amphibian larvae. This systematic work highlights the benefits of using teleost models to understand the pronephric glomerulus development. The morphological processes forming the pronephric glomerulus are astoundingly different between medaka and zebrafish. (1) The glomerular primordium of medaka - unlike the one of zebrafish - exhibits a C-shaped epithelial layer. (2) The C-shaped primordium contains a characteristic balloon-like capillary, which is subsequently divided into several smaller capillaries. (3) In zebrafish, the bilateral pair of pronephric glomeruli is fused at the midline to form a glomerulus, while in medaka the two parts remain unmerged due to the interposition of the interglomerular mesangium. (4) Throughout pronephric development the interglomerular mesangial cells exhibit numerous cytoplasmic granules, which are reminiscent of renin-producing (juxtaglomerular) cells in the mammalian afferent arterioles. Our systematic analysis of medaka and zebrafish demonstrates that in fish, the morphogenesis of the pronephric glomerulus is not stereotypical. These differences need be taken into account in future analyses of medaka mutants with glomerulus defects.