Revathy, K.S., Umasuthan, N., Whang, I., Lee, Y., Lee, S., Oh, M.J., Jung, S.J., Choi, C.Y., Park, C.J., Park, H.C., and Lee, J. (2012) A novel acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A-like 1, from Oplegnathus fasciatus: Genomic and molecular characterization and transcriptional expression analysis. Developmental and comparative immunology. 37(2):294-305.
Acute phase response is a significant component of innate immunity, playing a vital role in the signaling processes and elimination of invading pathogens. Acute phase proteins are synthesized in liver and secreted into the blood for transportation to an infection site, where the defense function is exerted. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive proteins are the major positive acute phase proteins. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel SAA related gene from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated OfSAAL1. Genomic characterization revealed the presence of 13 exons and 12 introns, similar to SAAL1 in zebrafish. Multiple protein sequence alignment revealed high conservation with other SAAL1 homologues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OfSAAL1 clustered with another fish homologue, and pairwise alignment revealed highest identity and similarity at the amino acid level with zebrafish SAAL1. Promoter region analysis revealed the presence of immunologically significant transcription factor binding sites. Tissue distribution profiling to indicate physiological relevance showed the highest levels occur in blood, followed by liver, suggesting a positive immune role in rock bream. Transcriptional analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to understand OfSAAL1 responsiveness to immune challenge with poly I:C, Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and rock bream iridovirus, revealed a significant level of elevation from 12 h to 48 h post-infection in blood, spleen, head kidney, and liver. To our knowledge, OfSAAL1 is the first characterized SAAL1 homologue from teleosts. We anticipate that its identification will prove inspiring for further studies of SAAL1 homologues as biomarkers of the acute phase response.