Role of zebrafish thrombocyte and non-thrombocyte microparticles in hemostasis

Kim, S., Carrillo, M., Radhakrishnan, U.P., and Jagadeeswaran, P.
Blood cells, molecules & diseases   48(3): 188-196 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Carrillo, Mairo, Jagadeeswaran, Pudur, Kim, Seongcheol, Radhakrishnan, Uvaraj P.
thrombocytes, microparticles, vWF, thrombosis, platelets, zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • Agglutination/physiology
  • Animals
  • Blood Platelets/metabolism*
  • Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism*
  • Hemostasis/physiology*
  • Zebrafish/metabolism*
  • von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
22306208 Full text @ Blood Cells Mol. Dis.

Hemostasis is a defense mechanism that protects an organism from bleeding in the event of injury. We have previously demonstrated the utility of the zebrafish as a model to study human hemostasis. However, there are no studies on the role of microparticles in hemostasis in early vertebrates. Studying microparticles in zebrafish may provide insight into the evolution of microparticle function in hemostasis and may lead to direct observation of these microparticles in zebrafish larvae due to transparency of the vessels. In this investigation we demonstrate the presence of cellular microparticles in fish blood by both immunostaining as well as by using zebrafish whose thrombocytes are labeled with green fluorescent protein. Further investigation showed that microparticles were also labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate annexin V, suggesting that these particles are derived via apoptosis. A portion of the fluorescein isothiocyanate annexin V labeled microparticles was also labeled by DiI-C18. Labeling by DiI-C18suggests that some microparticles are derived from young thrombocytes. Additionally, GpIIb antibody labels almost all thrombocyte-derived microparticles and a greater percentage of microparticles are labeled by GpIIb antibody than by DiI-C18. This suggests that thrombocyte microparticles are derived from both young and mature thrombocytes. Furthermore, the increase of microparticles by adding excessive microparticles into bloodin vitroand through intravenous injections led to an increased hemostatic response. In addition, treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha resulted in an increased number of thrombocyte microparticles and enhanced hemostasis; in contrast, treatment with zVAD-FMK, a caspase inhibitor, resulted in a decrease in thrombocyte microparticles and decreased hemostasis. We also found that thrombocyte microparticles agglutinate, along with other cells and cellular microparticles, in the presence of an excess of either ristocetin or ultra-large von Willebrand factor. Also, stimulation of von Willebrand factor releasein vivoresulted in clusters of thrombocyte microparticles in the veins. Moreover, thrombocyte microparticles were the first to appear at the site of arterial injury. We found that thrombocyte microparticles are functionally equivalent to platelet microparticles. The microparticles initiate arterial thrombus formation in a von Willebrand factor-dependent manner and further enhance thrombus formation by forming clusters of microparticles in venous thrombosis. This finding may have applications for understanding the role of platelet microparticles in humans and may have diagnostic applications.

Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes