Huang, S., Ma, J., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., and Luo, L. (2011) Geminin is required for left-right patterning through regulating Kupffer's vesicle formation and ciliogenesis in zebrafish. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 410(2):164-9.
Geminin plays an important role in coordinating the cell cycle with anterior-posterior patterning during embryonic development. However, whether it is involved in the regulation of left-right (LR) patterning remains unknown. Here, we reported that geminin is required for setting up heart and visceral laterality during zebrafish development. Defective heart and visceral laterality was observed in geminin morphants. Further study demonstrated that the left-sided nodal/spaw in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) as well as the sideness of its downstream targets lefty2 and lefty1 was perturbed in geminin morphants. Upstream of the left-sided Nodal signal along the regulatory cascade of LR asymmetry, knock down of geminin resulted in defective Kupffer's vesicle (KV) formation and ciliogenesis rather than middle line defects. Predominant distribution of an antisense morpholino against geminin in dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) led to defective KV morphogenesis and perturbed LR asymmetry, similar to those of geminin morphants, indicating a cell-autonomous role of geminin in regulating KV formation and ciliogenesis. Our results demonstrate that geminin is required for proper KV formation and ciliogenesis, thus playing an important part in setting up LR asymmetry.