Agetsuma, M., Aizawa, H., Aoki, T., Nakayama, R., Takahoko, M., Goto, M., Sassa, T., Amo, R., Shiraki, T., Kawakami, K., Hosoya, T., Higashijima, S.I., and Okamoto, H. (2010) The habenula is crucial for experience-dependent modification of fear responses in zebrafish. Nature Neuroscience. 13(11):1354-1356.
The zebrafish dorsal habenula (dHb) shows conspicuous asymmetry in its connection with the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and is equivalent to the mammalian medial habenula. Genetic inactivation of the lateral subnucleus of dHb (dHbL) biased fish towards freezing rather than the normal flight response to a conditioned fear stimulus, suggesting that the dHbL-IPN pathway is important for controlling experience-dependent modification of fear responses.