ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-100105-25
Evolution of primary hemostasis in early vertebrates
Kim, S., Carrillo, M., Kulkarni, V., and Jagadeeswaran, P.
Date: 2009
Source: PLoS One   4(12): e8403 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Carrillo, Mairo, Jagadeeswaran, Pudur, Kim, Seongcheol
Keywords: Serine proteases, Platelets, Gills, Hemorrhage, Zebrafish, Fishes, Proteases, Hemostasis
MeSH Terms:
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution*
  • Blood Platelets/drug effects
  • Cattle
  • Gills/drug effects
  • Gills/pathology
  • Hemostasis/drug effects
  • Hemostasis/physiology*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity/drug effects
  • Peptides/pharmacology
  • Receptor, PAR-2/chemistry
  • Receptor, PAR-2/metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Serine Proteases/metabolism
  • Signal Transduction/drug effects
  • Stress, Physiological/drug effects
  • Trypsin/metabolism
  • Water/analysis
  • Zebrafish/physiology*
PubMed: 20037653 Full text @ PLoS One
Hemostasis is a defense mechanism which protects the organism in the event of injury to stop bleeding. Recently, we established that all the known major mammalian hemostatic factors are conserved in early vertebrates. However, since their highly vascularized gills experience high blood pressure and are exposed to the environment, even very small injuries could be fatal to fish. Since trypsins are forerunners for coagulation proteases and are expressed by many extrapancreatic cells such as endothelial cells and epithelial cells, we hypothesized that trypsin or trypsin-like proteases from gill epithelial cells may protect these animals from gill bleeding following injuries. In this paper we identified the release of three different trypsins from fish gills into water under stress or injury, which have tenfold greater serine protease activity compared to bovine trypsin. We found that these trypsins activate the thrombocytes and protect the fish from gill bleeding. We found 27 protease-activated receptors (PARs) by analyzing zebrafish genome and classified them into five groups, based on tethering peptides, and two families, PAR1 and PAR2, based on homologies. We also found a canonical member of PAR2 family, PAR2-21A which is activated more readily by trypsin, and PAR2-21A tethering peptide stops gill bleeding just as trypsin. This finding provides evidence that trypsin cleaves a PAR2 member on thrombocyte surface. In conclusion, we believe that the gills are evolutionarily selected to produce trypsin to activate PAR2 on thrombocyte surface and protect the gills from bleeding. We also speculate that trypsin may also protect the fish from bleeding from other body injuries due to quick contact with the thrombocytes. Thus, this finding provides evidence for the role of trypsins in primary hemostasis in early vertebrates.