Huang, H.Y., Dai, E.S., Liu, J.T., Tu, C.T., Yang, T.C., and Tsai, H.J. (2009) The embryonic expression patterns and the knockdown phenotypes of zebrafish ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein gene. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 238(1):232-240.
ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 (Arl6) mutation is linked to human disease and Arl6 interacts with Arl6 interacting protein (Arl6ip). However, the expression pattern and function of Arl6ip during embryogenesis are unknown. To confirm whether abnormal Arl6ip function might result in embryonic defects in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of arl6ip during embryogenesis, and they were maternally expressed and exhibited in the brain, optic primordia, hypochord, spinal cord, myotome, heart, fin-bud, kidney, trunk, and retina. Knockdown of Arl6ip revealed the following phenotypic defects: microphthalmia, disorganized pigment pattern, flat head, defective tectum, deficient pectoral fins, abnormal pneumatic duct, pericardial edema, and deformed trunk. Particularly, histological dissection of the retinae of arl6ip-morphants revealed that neuronal differentiation is severely delayed, resulting in no formation of retinal layers. We further confirmed that opsins of arl6ip-morphants were not transcribed. Based on this evidence, Arl6ip may play important roles in zebrafish ocular, heart, and fin-bud development.