|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-030924-5|
Zebrafish chaperone protein GP96 is required for otolith formation during ear development
Sumanas, S., Larson, J.D., and Miller Bever, M.
|Source:||Developmental Biology 261(2): 443-455 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Larson, Jon D., Sumanas, Saulius|
|PubMed:||14499652 Full text @ Dev. Biol.|
Sumanas, S., Larson, J.D., and Miller Bever, M. (2003) Zebrafish chaperone protein GP96 is required for otolith formation during ear development. Developmental Biology. 261(2):443-455.
ABSTRACTChaperone proteins are considered to be fairly ubiquitous proteins that promote the correct folding and assembly of multiple newly synthesized proteins. While performing an embryonic screen in zebrafish using morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligonucleotides (MPOs), we identified a role for an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein family member, zebrafish GP96. Knockdown of GP96 resulted in a specific otolith formation defect during early ear development. Otolith precursor particles did not adhere to the kinocilia of the tether cells in the GP96-MPO-injected embryos, aggregating instead into a single clump. Although otolith development was abnormal, the patterning of the ear and the differentiation of tether cells and macular sensory and support cells was not affected. We have isolated and sequenced the full open reading frame of zebrafish GP96 and characterized its expression pattern. GP96 is expressed both maternally and zygotically. GP96 RNA is localized within the floorplate, hatching gland, and in the cells of the otic placode and otic vesicle, consistent with the function of GP96 in ear development. We conclude that the GP96 chaperone protein is involved in the otolith formation during normal ear development. This is the first report of a specific function during organism development being attributed to a chaperone class molecule.