Retinal histology in cardiovascular disruption model systems. (A,C) Plastic, methylene blue/Azure II-stained sections of doubly-transgenic (cdh5:gal4; UAS:nfsB-mCherry), DMSO-treated (DMSO Control, n = 6; (A); Met-treated (Endothelial Cell-Depleted, n = 8; (B); and Met-treated clutchmates (Met Control, n = 2; (C) at 72 hpf. Control retinas show defined nuclear and plexiform layers and photoreceptor apical processes, while endothelial cell-depleted retinas are disorganized, with poorly defined layers, pale, acellular areas containing pyknotic, darkly-stained nuclei (example appears within black circular profile in (B). Interior of lens contains clusters of nuclei (*). (D,E) Plastic sections of normal clutchmates (n = 5; (D) and sih–/– embryos (n = 13; E) at 72 hpf. The inner plexiform layer appears reduced in thickness in sih–/– compared to normal, and there is evidence of photoreceptor apical processes only within a ventral patch (white arrow in (E). (F,G) Plastic sections of normal clutchmates (n = 5; (F) and vlt–/– embryos (n = 9; (G) Histology of vlt–/– retina appears similar to normal siblings at 72 hpf. ONL, outer nuclear layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; ONH, optic nerve head. Scale bar (in (A), applies to all) = 50 μm. Embryos in (A–C) were PTU-treated; those in D-G were not.
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