Early placodal defects in cas/sox32 and snh/bmp7 mutants. Lateral views, anterior to the left except for in B, which is a transverse section, and E,F, which are dorsal views. (A,B) Whole-mount in situ hybridization for foxi1 in embryos at 20 hpf from a cross between cas+/– heterozygotes reveals no difference between wild types and mutants. Arrows in B indicate ectodermal expression. (C,D) foxi1 expression at 48 hpf in both pouch endoderm and epibranchial placodes in wild type, and loss of expression in cas mutants. (E,F) Dorsal views showing foxi1 expression at 20 hpf in wild type and severe reduction of expression in snh/bmp7 mutants. (G,H) Lateral views showing neurod expression in epibranchial ganglia and severe reductions in snh/bmp7 mutants. 1-6, pharyngeal pouches; gVII, facial; gIX, glossopharyngeal; gX, vagal; nt, neural tube; ot, otic vesicle.