Lahvic, J.L., Ammerman, M., Li, P., Blair, M.C., Stillman, E.R., Fast, E.M., Robertson, A.L., Christodoulou, C., Perlin, J.R., Yang, S., Chiang, N., Norris, P.C., Daily, M.L., Redfield, S.E., Chan, I.T., Chatrizeh, M., Chase, M.E., Weis, O., Zhou, Y., Serhan, C.N., Zon, L.I. (2018) Specific oxylipins enhance vertebrate hematopoiesis via the receptor GPR132. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115(37):9252-9257.
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are lipid-derived signaling molecules with cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions. We recently showed that 11,12-EET enhances hematopoietic induction and engraftment in mice and zebrafish. EETs are known to signal via G protein-coupled receptors, with evidence supporting the existence of a specific high-affinity receptor. Identification of a hematopoietic-specific EET receptor would enable genetic interrogation of EET signaling pathways, and perhaps clinical use of this molecule. We developed a bioinformatic approach to identify an EET receptor based on the expression of G protein-coupled receptors in cell lines with differential responses to EETs. We found 10 candidate EET receptors that are expressed in three EET-responsive cell lines, but not expressed in an EET-unresponsive line. Of these, only recombinant GPR132 showed EET-responsiveness in vitro, using a luminescence-based β-arrestin recruitment assay. Knockdown of zebrafish gpr132b prevented EET-induced hematopoiesis, and marrow from GPR132 knockout mice showed decreased long-term engraftment capability. In contrast to high-affinity EET receptors, GPR132 is reported to respond to additional hydroxy-fatty acids in vitro, and we found that these same hydroxy-fatty acids enhance hematopoiesis in the zebrafish. We conducted structure-activity relationship analyses using both cell culture and zebrafish assays on diverse medium-chain fatty acids. Certain oxygenated, unsaturated free fatty acids showed high activation of GPR132, whereas unoxygenated or saturated fatty acids had lower activity. Absence of the carbon-1 position carboxylic acid prevented activity, suggesting that this moiety is required for receptor activation. GPR132 responds to a select panel of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance both embryonic and adult hematopoiesis.