Shi, Q., Wang, M., Shi, F., Yang, L., Guo, Y., Feng, C., Liu, J., Zhou, B. (2018) Developmental neurotoxicity of triphenyl phosphate in zebrafish larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 203:80-87.
Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), a typical organophosphate ester, is frequently detected in the environment and biota samples. It has been implicated as a neurotoxin as its structure is similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate its potential developmental neurotoxicity in fish by using zebrafish larvae as a model. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 0.8, 4, 20 and 100 μg/L of TPhP from 2 until 144 h post-fertilization. TPhP was found to have high bioconcentrations in zebrafish larvae after exposure. Further, it significantly reduced locomotor activity as well as the heart rate at the 100 μg/L concentration. TPhP exposure significantly altered the content of the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric and histamine. Downregulation of the genes related to central nervous system development (e.g., α1-tubulin, mbp, syn2a, shha, and elavl3) as well as the corresponding proteins (e.g., α1-tubulin, mbp, and syn2a) was observed, but the gap-43 protein was found to upregulated. Finally, marked inhibition of total acetylcholinesterase activity, which is considered as a biomarker of neurotoxicant exposure, was also observed in the larvae. Our results indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TPhP can affect different parameters related to center nervous system development, and thus contribute to developmental neurotoxicity in early developing zebrafish larvae.