To date, several genome editing technologies have been developed and are widely utilized in many fields of biology. Most of these technologies, if not all, use nucleases to create DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), raising the potential risk of cell death and/or oncogenic transformation. The risks hinder their therapeutic applications in humans. Here, we show that in vivo targeted single-nucleotide editing in zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism, can be successfully accomplished with the Target-AID system, which involves deamination of a targeted cytidine to create a nucleotide substitution from cytosine to thymine after replication. Application of the system to two zebrafish genes, chordin (chd) and one-eyed pinhead (oep), successfully introduced premature stop codons (TAG or TAA) in the targeted genomic loci. The modifications were heritable and faithfully produced phenocopies of well-known homozygous mutants of each gene. These results demonstrate for the first time that the Target-AID system can create heritable nucleotide substitutions in vivo in a programmable manner, in vertebrates, namely zebrafish.