Zhang, C.N., Zhang, J.L., Huang, Y., Ren, H.T., Guan, S.H., Zeng, Q.H. (2017) Dibutyltin depressed immune functions via NF-κB, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environmental toxicology. 33(1):104-111.
Dibutyltin (DBT) is the degradation products of TBT, which is generally considered higher toxicity than TBT in the immune system. In order to learn more about the mechanisms of immune-toxic of DBT, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/L DBT for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, we determined the immune parameters and immune-related genes. The results showed that with an increase in TBT dose, lysozyme activities and IgM, C3, C4 content in intestine, skin and spleen were all significantly inhibited by the DBT exposure. Fish exposed to 10 ng/L and 100 ng/L showed significantly lower lysozyme activities and IgM, C3, C4 content than those of the control group. Zebrafish exposed to 10 ng/L and 100 ng/L DBT, the mRNA transcript levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ2 (INFγ2), nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-kB p65), inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα), IκB kinases β (IKKβ), Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases (JAKs) and the signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins (STATs) all increased with the DBT levels in the intestine and spleen. Those parameters showed significantly higher values in 10 ng/L and 100 ng/L than those of fish in the control group. However, no significant difference was found in IκB kinases α (IKKα) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA levels in the intestine and spleen. These data imply that DBT might be via suppression on IKKβ/IkBa/NF-kBp65 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways to regulate the immunity of zebrafish.