Postlethwait, J.H., Yan, Y.L., Desvignes, T., Allard, C., Titus, T., Le François, N.R., Detrich, H.W. (2016) Embryogenesis and early skeletogenesis in the Antarctic Bullhead notothen, Notothenia coriiceps. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 245(11):1066-1080.
Background Environmental temperature influences rates of embryonic development, but a detailed staging series for vertebrate embryos developing in the sub-zero cold of Antarctic waters is not yet available from fertilization to hatching. Given projected warming of the Southern Ocean, it is imperative to establish a baseline to evaluate potential effects of changing climate on fish developmental dynamics.
Results We studied the Bullhead notothen (Notothenia coriiceps), a notothenioid fish inhabiting waters between -1.9 and +2°C. In vitro fertilization produced embryos that progressed through cleavage, epiboly, gastrulation, segmentation, organogenesis, and hatching. We compared morphogenesis spatially and temporally to zebrafish and medaka. Experimental animals hatched after about six months to early larval stages. To help understand skeletogenesis, we analyzed late embryos for expression of sox9, and runx2, which regulate chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and eye development. Results revealed that, despite its prolonged developmental time course, N. coriiceps embryos developed similarly to those of other teleosts with large yolk cells.
Conclusions Our studies set the stage for future molecular analyses of development in these extremophile fish. Results provide a foundation for understanding the impact of ocean warming on embryonic development and larval recruitment of notothenioid fish, which are key factors in the marine trophic system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.