Live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in CNS dopaminergic neurons in vivo demonstrates early reversal of mitochondrial transport following MPP(+) exposure

Dukes, A.A., Bai, Q., Van Laar, V.S., Zhou, Y., Ilin, V., David, C.N., Agim, Z.S., Bonkowsky, J.L., Cannon, J.R., Watkins, S.C., Croix, C.M., Burton, E.A., Berman, S.B.
Neurobiology of disease   95: 238-49 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Berman, Sarah, Bonkowsky, Joshua, Burton, Edward A.
Live imaging, MPP(+), Mitochondrial dynamics, Parkinson's disease, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Axonal Transport/drug effects*
  • Axonal Transport/physiology
  • Axons/pathology
  • Cell Death/drug effects
  • Central Nervous System/drug effects*
  • Central Nervous System/physiopathology
  • Dopamine/metabolism
  • Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects*
  • Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism
  • MPTP Poisoning/pathology
  • Mitochondria/drug effects
  • Mitochondria/metabolism
  • Mitochondrial Dynamics*/drug effects
  • Mitochondrial Dynamics*/physiology
  • Neuroimaging*
  • Parkinson Disease/metabolism
  • Zebrafish
27452482 Full text @ Neurobiol. Dis.
Extensive convergent evidence collectively suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).Recently, changes in the dynamic properties of mitochondria have been increasingly implicated as a key proximate mechanism underlying neurodegeneration.However, studies have been limited by the lack of a model in which mitochondria can be imaged directly and dynamically in dopaminergic neurons of the intact vertebrate CNS.We generated transgenic zebrafish in which mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons are labeled with a fluorescent reporter, and optimized methods allowing direct intravital imaging of CNS dopaminergic axons and measurement of mitochondrial transport in vivo.The proportion of mitochondria undergoing axonal transport in dopaminergic neurons decreased overall during development between 2days post-fertilization (dpf) and 5dpf, at which point the major period of growth and synaptogenesis of the relevant axonal projections is complete.Exposure to 0.5-1.0mM MPP(+) between 4 and 5dpf did not compromise zebrafish viability or cause detectable changes in the number or morphology of dopaminergic neurons, motor function or monoaminergic neurochemistry.However, 0.5mM MPP(+) caused a 300% increase in retrograde mitochondrial transport and a 30% decrease in anterograde transport.In contrast, exposure to higher concentrations of MPP(+) caused an overall reduction in mitochondrial transport.This is the first time mitochondrial transport has been observed directly in CNS dopaminergic neurons of a living vertebrate and quantified in a PD model in vivo.Our findings are compatible with a model in which damage at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals causes an early compensatory increase in retrograde transport of compromised mitochondria for degradation in the cell body.These data are important because manipulation of early pathogenic mechanisms might be a valid therapeutic approach to PD.The novel transgenic lines and methods we developed will be useful for future studies on mitochondrial dynamics in health and disease.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes