|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-160725-6|
Defects of the Glycinergic Synapse in Zebrafish
Ogino, K., Hirata, H.
|Source:||Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 9: 50 (Review)|
|Registered Authors:||Hirata, Hiromi|
|Keywords:||glycine, receptor, startle disease, synapse, transporter, zebrafish|
|PubMed:||27445686 Full text @ Front. Mol. Neurosci.|
Ogino, K., Hirata, H. (2016) Defects of the Glycinergic Synapse in Zebrafish. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience. 9:50.
ABSTRACTGlycine mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Physiological importance of the glycinergic synapse is well established in the brainstem and the spinal cord. In humans, the loss of glycinergic function in the spinal cord and brainstem leads to hyperekplexia, which is characterized by an excess startle reflex to sudden acoustic or tactile stimulation. In addition, glycinergic synapses in this region are also involved in the regulation of respiration and locomotion, and in the nociceptive processing. The importance of the glycinergic synapse is conserved across vertebrate species. A teleost fish, the zebrafish, offers several advantages as a vertebrate model for research of glycinergic synapse. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have isolated two motor defective mutants that have pathogenic mutations in glycinergic synaptic transmission: bandoneon (beo) and shocked (sho). Beo mutants have a loss-of-function mutation of glycine receptor (GlyR) β-subunit b, alternatively, sho mutant is a glycinergic transporter 1 (GlyT1) defective mutant. These mutants are useful animal models for understanding of glycinergic synaptic transmission and for identification of novel therapeutic agents for human diseases arising from defect in glycinergic transmission, such as hyperekplexia or glycine encephalopathy. Recent advances in techniques for genome editing and for imaging and manipulating of a molecule or a physiological process make zebrafish more attractive model. In this review, we describe the glycinergic defective zebrafish mutants and the technical advances in both forward and reverse genetic approaches as well as in vivo visualization and manipulation approaches for the study of the glycinergic synapse in zebrafish.
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