Schartl, M., Walter, R.B. (2016) Xiphophorus and Medaka Cancer Models. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 916:531-52.
Besides recently developed zebrafish cancer models, other fish species have been employed for many years as cancer models in laboratory studies. Two models, namely in Xiphophorus and medaka have proven useful in providing important clues to cancer etiology. Medaka is a complementary model to zebrafish in many areas of research since it offers similar resources and experimental tools. Xiphophorus provides the advantages of a natural ("evolutionary mutant") model with established genetics. Xiphophorus hybrids can develop spontaneous and radiation or carcinogen induced cancers. This chapter describes the tumor models in both species, which mainly focus on melanoma, and summarizes the main findings and future research directions.