Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells
- Tarbashevich, K., Reichman-Fried, M., Grimaldi, C., Raz, E.
- Current biology : CB 25(8): 1096-103 (Journal)
- Registered Authors
- Grimaldi, Cecilia, Raz, Erez, Reichman-Fried, Michal, Tarbashevich, Katsiyarina
- MeSH Terms
- Cell Movement/physiology*
- Cell Polarity/physiology*
- Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism
- Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
- Germ Cells/cytology
- Germ Cells/growth & development*
- Germ Cells/metabolism
- Hydrogen-Ion Concentration*
- Intracellular Fluid/chemistry*
- Intracellular Fluid/metabolism
- 25843033 Full text @ Curr. Biol.
Tarbashevich, K., Reichman-Fried, M., Grimaldi, C., Raz, E. (2015) Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells. Current biology : CB. 25(8):1096-103.
Directional cell migration requires cell polarization with respect to the distribution of the guidance cue. Cell polarization often includes asymmetric distribution of response components as well as elements of the motility machinery. Importantly, the function and regulation of most of these molecules are known to be pH dependent [1-3]. Intracellular pH gradients were shown to occur in certain cells migrating in vitro [4-6], but the functional relevance of such gradients for cell migration and for the response to directional cues, particularly in the intact organism, is currently unknown. In this study, we find that primordial germ cells migrating in the context of the developing embryo respond to the graded distribution of the chemokine Cxcl12 by establishing elevated intracellular pH at the cell front. We provide insight into the mechanisms by which a polar pH distribution contributes to efficient cell migration. Specifically, we show that Carbonic Anhydrase 15b, an enzyme controlling the pH in many cell types [7-9], including metastatic cancer cells , is expressed in migrating germ cells and is crucial for establishing and maintaining an asymmetric pH distribution within them. Reducing the level of the protein and thereby erasing the pH elevation at the cell front resulted in abnormal cell migration and impaired arrival at the target. The basis for the disrupted migration is found in the stringent requirement for pH conditions in the cell for regulating contractility, for the polarization of Rac1 activity, and hence for the formation of actin-rich structures at the leading edge of the migrating cells.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes