|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-141108-10|
Immunity and Immunopathology in the Tuberculous Granuloma
Pagán, A.J., Ramakrishnan, L.
|Source:||Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 5(9): (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Ramakrishnan, Lalita|
|PubMed:||25377142 Full text @ Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med.|
Pagán, A.J., Ramakrishnan, L. (2014) Immunity and Immunopathology in the Tuberculous Granuloma. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 5(9).
ABSTRACTGranulomas, organized aggregates of immune cells, are a defining feature of tuberculosis (TB). Granuloma formation is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders. However, the tuberculous granuloma has been assigned the role of a host protective structure which "walls-off" mycobacteria. Work conducted over the past decade has provided a more nuanced view of its role in pathogenesis. On the one hand, pathogenic mycobacteria accelerate and exploit granuloma formation for their expansion and dissemination by manipulating host immune responses to turn leukocyte recruitment and cell death pathways in their favor. On the other hand, granuloma macrophages can preserve granuloma integrity by exerting a microbicidal immune response, thus preventing an even more rampant expansion of infection in the extracellular milieu. Even this host-beneficial immune response required to maintain the bacteria intracellular must be tempered, as an overly vigorous immune response can also cause granuloma breakdown, thereby directly supporting bacterial growth extracellularly. This review will discuss how mycobacteria manipulate inflammatory responses to drive granuloma formation and will consider the roles of the granuloma in pathogenesis and protective immunity, drawing from clinical studies of TB in humans and from animal models-rodents, zebrafish, and nonhuman primates. A deeper understanding of TB pathogenesis and immunity in the granuloma could suggest therapeutic approaches to abrogate the host-detrimental aspects of granuloma formation to convert it into the host-beneficial structure that it has been thought to be for nearly a century.