Tbx Protein Level Critical for Clock-Mediated Somite Positioning Is Regulated through Interaction between Tbx and Ripply

Wanglar, C., Takahashi, J., Yabe, T., Takada, S.
PLoS One   9: e107928 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Takada, Shinji, Yabe, Taijirou
Zebrafish, Embryos, Protein domains, Somites, Morphogenic segmentation, Genetic oscillators, Protein expression, Immunostaining
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Nuclear Proteins/metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Somites/embryology*
  • Somites/metabolism*
  • T-Box Domain Proteins/chemistry
  • T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics
  • T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism*
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins/chemistry
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism*
25259583 Full text @ PLoS One
Somitogenesis in vertebrates is a complex and dynamic process involving many sequences of events generated from the segmentation clock. Previous studies with mouse embryos revealed that the presumptive somite boundary is periodically created at the anterior border of the expression domain of Tbx6 protein. Ripply1 and Ripply2 are required for the determination of the Tbx6 protein border, but the mechanism by which this Tbx6 domain is regulated remains unclear. Furthermore, since zebrafish and frog Ripplys are known to be able to suppress Tbx6 function at the transcription level, it is also unclear whether Ripply-mediated mechanism of Tbx6 regulation is conserved among different species. Here, we tested the generality of Tbx6 protein-mediated process in somite segmentation by using zebrafish and further examined the mechanism of regulation of Tbx6 protein. By utilizing an antibody against zebrafish Tbx6/Fss, previously referred to as Tbx24, we found that the anterior border of Tbx6 domain coincided with the presumptive intersomitic boundary even in the zebrafish and it shifted dynamically during 1 cycle of segmentation. Consistent with the findings in mice, the tbx6 mRNA domain was located far anterior to its protein domain, indicating the possibility of posttranscriptional regulation. When both ripply1/2 were knockdown, the Tbx6 domain was anteriorly expanded. We further directly demonstrated that Ripply could reduce the expression level of Tbx6 protein depending on physical interaction between Ripply and Tbx6. Moreover, the onset of ripply1 and ripply2 expression occurred after reduction of FGF signaling at the anterior PSM, but this expression initiated much earlier on treatment with SU5402, a chemical inhibitor of FGF signaling. These results strongly suggest that Ripply is a direct regulator of the Tbx6 protein level for the establishment of intersomitic boundaries and mediates a reduction in FGF signaling for the positioning of the presumptive intersomitic boundary in the PSM.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes