Vacaru, A.M., Unlu, G., Spitzner, M., Mione, M., Knapik, E.W., and Sadler, K.C. (2014) In vivo cell biology in zebrafish - providing insights into vertebrate development and disease. Journal of Cell Science. 127(Pt 3):485-495.
Over the past decades, studies using zebrafish have significantly advanced our understanding of the cellular basis for development
and human diseases. Zebrafish have rapidly developing transparent embryos that allow comprehensive imaging of embryogenesis
combined with powerful genetic approaches. However, forward genetic screens in zebrafish have generated unanticipated findings
that are mirrored by human genetic studies: disruption of genes implicated in basic cellular processes, such as protein secretion
or cytoskeletal dynamics, causes discrete developmental or disease phenotypes. This is surprising because many processes that
were assumed to be fundamental to the function and survival of all cell types appear instead to be regulated by cell-specific
mechanisms. Such discoveries are facilitated by experiments in whole animals, where zebrafish provides an ideal model for
visualization and manipulation of organelles and cellular processes in a live vertebrate. Here, we review well-characterized
mutants and newly developed tools that underscore this notion. We focus on the secretory pathway and microtubule-based trafficking
as illustrative examples of how studying cell biology in vivo using zebrafish has broadened our understanding of the role fundamental cellular processes play in embryogenesis and disease.