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ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-140325-2
Comparative analysis of teleost fish genomes reveals preservation of different ancient clock duplicates in different fishes
Wang, H.
Date: 2008
Source: Marine genomics   1(2): 69-78 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Wang, Han
Keywords: none
MeSH Terms: none
PubMed: 21798156 Full text @ Mar. Genomics

Clock (Circadian locomotor output cycle kaput) was the first vertebrate circadian clock gene identified in a mouse forward genetics mutagenesis screen. It encodes a bHLH-PAS protein that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Tetrapods also have the second Clock gene, Clock2 or Npas2 (Neuronal PAS domain protein 2). Conversely, the fruit fly, an invertebrate, has only one clock gene. Interrogation of the five teleost fish genome databases revealed that the zebrafish and the Japanese pufferfish (fugu) each have three clock genes, whereas the green spotted pufferfish (tetraodon), the Japanese medaka fish and the three-spine stickleback each have two clock genes. Phylogenetic and splice site analyses indicated that zebrafish and fugu each have two clock1 genes, clock1a and clock1b and one clock2; tetraodon also have clock1a and clock1b but do not have clock2; and medaka and stickleback each have clock1b and one clock2. Genome neighborhood analysis further showed that clock1a/clock1b in zebrafish, fugu and tetraodon is an ancient duplicate. While the dN/dS ratios of these three fish clock duplicates are all < 1, indicating that purifying selection has acted upon them; the Tajima relative rate test showed that all three fish clock duplicates have asymmetric evolutionary rates, implicating that one of these duplicates have been under positive selection or relaxed functional constraint. These results support the view that teleost fish clock genes were generated from an ancient genome-wide duplication, and differential gene loss after the duplication resulted in retention of different ancient duplicates in different teleost fishes, which could have contributed to the evolution of the distinct fish circadian clock mechanisms.