Renninger, S.L., and Orger, M.B. (2013) Two-photon imaging of neural population activity in zebrafish. Methods (San Diego, Calif.). 62(3):255-67.
Rapidly developing imaging technologies including two-photon microscopy and genetically encoded calcium indicators have opened up new possibilities for recording neural population activity in awake, behaving animals. In the small, transparent zebrafish, it is even becoming possible to image the entire brain of a behaving animal with single-cell resolution, creating brain-wide functional maps. In this chapter, we comprehensively review past functional imaging studies in zebrafish, and the insights that they provide into the functional organization of neural circuits. We further offer a basic primer on state-of-the-art methods for in vivo calcium imaging in the zebrafish, including building a low-cost two-photon microscope and highlight possible challenges and technical considerations.