Wu, T.S., Yang, J.J., Yu, F.Y., and Liu, B.H. (2012) Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 50(12):4398-4404.
Citrinin (CTN) and patulin (PAT) are fungal secondary metabolites which are found in food and feed and showed organotoxicity in mature animals. In this study zebrafish embryos were applied to investigate the developmental toxicity of CTN and PAT on embryonic kidney. In the presence of CTN and PAT, the gross morphology of kidneys from embryos with green fluorescent kidney (wt1b:GFP) was not apparently altered. Histological analysis of CTN-treated embryos indicated cystic glomerular and tubular lesions; a disorganized arrangement of renal cells was also found in the PAT-treated group. From the view point of renal function, dextran clearance abilities of embryos exposed to CTN and PAT were significantly reduced. The damaged renal function caused by CTN could be partially rescued by the administration of pentoxifylline, suggesting the reduction of glomerular blood flow contributes to CTN-induced renal dysfunction. Additionally, CTN induced the expression of proinflammation genes, including COX2a, TNF-α and IL-1β, but failed to modify the levels and distribution of wt1a transcript and Na+/K+-ATPase protein. In summary, CTN and PAT caused profound nephrotoxicity in histological structure and biological function of zebrafish embryos; the inflammatory pathway and blood rheology may involve in CTN-induced renal impairment.