Williams, L.R., Wong, K., Stewart, A., Suciu, C., Gaikwad, S., Wu, N., Dileo, J., Grossman, L., Cachat, J., Hart, P., and Kalueff, A.V. (2012) Behavioral and physiological effects of RDX on adult zebrafish. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP. 155(1):33-8.
1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a nitroamine explosive, with common toxic effects including seizures. Here, we explore the behavioral effects of acute RDX exposure in adult zebrafish Danio rerio, a rapidly developing model in neuroscience and neurotoxicology research. Overall, a 30-min exposure to RDX low dose of 0.1 mM evoked behavioral activation in zebrafish, while a higher dose of 1 mM markedly reduced exploration, increased freezing and evoked seizure-like responses (i.e., bouts of hyperactivity, spasms, and corkscrew swimming). Likewise, whole-body cortisol levels were also significantly elevated in fish exposed to 1 mM (but not 0.1 mM) RDX. In line with clinical and animal data, our study demonstrates the dose-dependent behavioral activation and pro-convulsant effects of RDX in zebrafish-based models.