Distinct tissue-specificity of three zebrafish ext1 genes encoding proteoglycan modifying enzymes and their relationship to somitic Sonic Hedgehog signaling

Siekmann, A.F., and Brand, M.
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists   232(2): 498-505 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Brand, Michael, Siekmann, Arndt Friedrich
zebrafish, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, EXT1, somites, neural tube, shh, smu, syu
MeSH Terms
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Brain/embryology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drosophila
  • Embryonic Development
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/biosynthesis*
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/physiology
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Phylogeny
  • Proteoglycans/metabolism*
  • RNA/metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Trans-Activators/metabolism*
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins/chemistry
15614771 Full text @ Dev. Dyn.
Proteins of the EXT (Exostosin) 1 family are known for their role in human disease. Mutations in EXT1 cause hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), benign outgrowths of the bones, and therefore were classed as tumor suppressors. More recently, their role during embryonic development of Drosophila and mouse was addressed, revealing important functions of EXT1 genes in major signaling pathways. Here, we report the isolation of three zebrafish members of the EXT1 family, which we named ext1a, ext1b, and ext1c, respectively. They are expressed in restricted temporal and spatial domains during development. Both ext1a and ext1b are provided maternally and expressed during gastrulation: ext1a in the neurectoderm and ext1b in the embryonic midline and in the involuting mesendoderm of the germ ring. During somitogenesis stages, transcripts of all three ext genes can be found in the somitic mesoderm. Furthermore, ext1a is expressed in the dorsal neural tube. These expression domains become more pronounced at 24 hr postfertilization (hpf). At 48 hpf, ext1 genes are present in the brain, while somitic expression ceases. Zebrafish have three members of the EXT1 family, in contrast to only one EXT1 gene in mammals or Xenopus, consistent with the occurrence of partial genome duplications in the teleost lineage. Our expression analysis reveals that the three ext genes have distinct expression patterns, reflecting functional divergence after duplication. In addition, expression of ext1a and ext1c responds to elevated and reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog (shh) signaling in the somites, whereas expression of ext1b does not. This suggests a differential relationship between the shh pathway and individual ext gene function in zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics 232:499-506, 2005. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Genes / Markers
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes