ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-040109-20
Turning heads: development of vertebrate branchiomotor neurons
Chandrasekhar, A.
Date: 2004
Source: Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists   229(1): 143-161 (Review)
Registered Authors: Chandrasekhar, Anand
Keywords: hindbrain, motor neuron, rhombomere, axon guidance, anatomy, specification, neuronal migration, branchial arch, cranial, segmentation
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Cell Movement
  • Cranial Nerves/cytology
  • Cranial Nerves/embryology
  • Efferent Pathways/cytology
  • Efferent Pathways/embryology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genes, Homeobox
  • Humans
  • Motor Neurons/cytology*
  • Rhombencephalon/cytology
  • Rhombencephalon/embryology
  • Stem Cells/cytology
  • Vertebrates/embryology*
  • Vertebrates/genetics
PubMed: 14699587 Full text @ Dev. Dyn.
The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks.