ZFIN ID: ZDB-PERS-070104-2
Spaink, Herman P.
URL: http://www.biology.leidenuniv.nl/ibl/S1/
Affiliation: Spaink Lab
Address: Institute of Biology Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, Netherlands
Country: Netherlands
Phone: +31-71-5274927/5055
Fax: +31-71-5274999/5088


Del Prado, J.A., Ding, Y., Sonneville, J., der Kolk, K.V., Moreno-Mateos, M.A., Málaga-Trillo, E., Spaink, H.P. (2024) Comparing robotic and manual injection methods in zebrafish embryos for high-throughput RNA silencing using CRISPR-RfxCas13d. Biotechniques. 76(5):183-191
Khalil, R., Bonnemaijer, J.D.D., Kreutz, R., Spaink, H.P., Hogendoorn, P.C.W., Baelde, H.J. (2023) Transmembrane protein 14A protects glomerular filtration barrier integrity. Physiological Reports. 11:e15847e15847
Eeza, M.N.H., Singer, R., Ding, Y., He, J., Zuberi, Z., Baelde, H.J., de Groot, H.J.M., Matysik, J., Spaink, H.P., Alia, A. (2023) Probing microstructural changes in muscles of leptin-deficient zebrafish by non-invasive ex-vivo magnetic resonance microimaging. PLoS One. 18:e0284215e0284215
Hu, W., Liu, L., Forn-Cuní, G., Ding, Y., Alia, A., Spaink, H.P. (2023) Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal That Toll-like Receptor 2 Has a Role in Glucose-Related Metabolism in Unchallenged Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio). Biology. 12(2):
Hu, W., Koch, B.E.V., Lamers, G.E.M., Forn-Cuní, G., Spaink, H.P. (2023) Specificity of the innate immune responses to different classes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Frontiers in immunology. 13:10754731075473
Allers, M., Bakker, P.A., Hoeksma, J., Spaink, H.P., den Hertog, J. (2023) Loss of Shp1 impairs myeloid cell function and causes lethal inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Disease models & mechanisms. 16(2):
Ding, Y., Haks, M.C., van den Eeden, S.J.F., Ottenhoff, T.H.M., Harms, A.C., Hankemeier, T., Eeza, M.N.H., Matysik, J., Alia, A., Spaink, H.P. (2022) Leptin mutation and mycobacterial infection lead non-synergistically to a similar metabolic syndrome. Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society. 18:67
Driessen, M., Plas-Duivesteijn, S.V., Kienhuis, A.S., van den Brandhof, E.J., Roodbergen, M., van de Water, B., Spaink, H.P., Palmblad, M., van der Ven, L.T.M., Pennings, J.L.A. (2022) Identification of proteome markers for drug-induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos. Toxicology. 477:153262
Gazzi, T., Brennecke, B., Atz, K., Korn, C., Sykes, D., Forn-Cuni, G., Pfaff, P., Sarott, R.C., Westphal, M.V., Mostinski, Y., Mach, L., Wasinska-Kalwa, M., Weise, M., Hoare, B.L., Miljuš, T., Mexi, M., Roth, N., Koers, E.J., Guba, W., Alker, A., Rufer, A.C., Kusznir, E.A., Huber, S., Raposo, C., Zirwes, E.A., Osterwald, A., Pavlovic, A., Moes, S., Beck, J., Nettekoven, M., Benito-Cuesta, I., Grande, T., Drawnel, F., Widmer, G., Holzer, D., van der Wel, T., Mandhair, H., Honer, M., Fingerle, J., Scheffel, J., Broichhagen, J., Gawrisch, K., Romero, J., Hillard, C.J., Varga, Z.V., van der Stelt, M., Pacher, P., Gertsch, J., Ullmer, C., McCormick, P.J., Oddi, S., Spaink, H.P., Maccarrone, M., Veprintsev, D.B., Carreira, E.M., Grether, U., Nazaré, M. (2022) Detection of cannabinoid receptor type 2 in native cells and zebrafish with a highly potent, cell-permeable fluorescent probe. Chemical science. 13:5539-5545
Nowik, N., Prajsnar, T.K., Przyborowska, A., Rakus, K., Sienkiewicz, W., Spaink, H.P., Podlasz, P. (2021) The Role of Galanin during Bacterial Infection in Larval Zebrafish. Cells. 10(8):
Ding, Y., Haks, M.C., Forn-Cuní, G., He, J., Nowik, N., Harms, A.C., Hankemeier, T., Eeza, M.N.H., Matysik, J., Alia, A., Spaink, H.P. (2021) Metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling of adult mice and larval zebrafish leptin mutants reveal a common pattern of changes in metabolites and signaling pathways. Cell & Bioscience. 11:126
He, J., Ding, Y., Nowik, N., Jager, C., H Eeza, M.N., Alia, A., Baelde, H.J., Spaink, H.P. (2021) Leptin deficiency affects glucose homeostasis and results in adiposity in zebrafish. The Journal of endocrinology. 249(2):125-134
Hu, W., van Steijn, L., Li, C., Verbeek, F.J., Cao, L., Merks, R.M.H., Spaink, H.P. (2021) A Novel Function of TLR2 and MyD88 in the Regulation of Leukocyte Cell Migration Behavior During Wounding in Zebrafish Larvae. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology. 9:624571
Leijten, N.M., Bakker, P., Spaink, H.P., den Hertog, J., Lemeer, S. (2021) Thermal Proteome Profiling in Zebrafish Reveals Effects of Napabucasin on Retinoic Acid Metabolism. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 20:100033
Koch, B.E.V., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2021) A quantitative in vivo assay for craniofacial developmental toxicity of histone deacetylases. Toxicology letters. 342:20-25
Hosseini, R., Lamers, G.E.M., Bos, E., Hogendoorn, P.C.W., Koster, A.J., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J.M. (2021) The adapter protein Myd88 plays an important role in limiting mycobacterial growth in a zebrafish model for tuberculosis. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 479(2):265-275
van Wijk, R.C., Hu, W., Dijkema, S.M., van den Berg, D.J., Liu, J., Bahi, R., Verbeek, F.J., Simonsson, U.S.H., Spaink, H.P., van der Graaf, P.H., Krekels, E.H.J. (2020) Anti-tuberculosis effect of isoniazid scales accurately from zebrafish to humans. British journal of pharmacology. 177(24):5518-5533
Wentzel, A.S., Petit, J., van Veen, W.G., Fink, I.R., Scheer, M.H., Piazzon, M.C., Forlenza, M., Spaink, H.P., Wiegertjes, G.F. (2020) Transcriptome sequencing supports a conservation of macrophage polarization in fish. Scientific Reports. 10:13470
Brinkmann, B.W., Koch, B.E.V., Spaink, H.P., Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M., Vijver, M.G. (2020) Colonizing microbiota protect zebrafish larvae against silver nanoparticle toxicity. Nanotoxicology. 14(6):725-739
van Wijk, R.C., van, A.M., der Sar, ., Krekels, E.H., Verboom, T., Spaink, H.P., Simonsson, U.S., van, P.H., der Graaf, . (2020) Quantification of natural growth of two strains of Mycobacterium marinum for translational anti-tuberculosis drug development. Clinical and translational science. 13(6):1060-1064
Moreira, J.D., Koch, B.E.V., van Veen, S., Walburg, K.V., Vrieling, F., Mara Pinto Dabés Guimarães, T., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Ottenhoff, T.H.M., Haks, M.C., Heemskerk, M.T. (2020) Functional Inhibition of Host Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Enhances in vitro and in vivo Anti-mycobacterial Activity in Human Macrophages and in Zebrafish. Frontiers in immunology. 11:36
Hu, W., Yang, S., Shimada, Y., Münch, M., Marín-Juez, R., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P. (2019) Infection and RNA-seq analysis of a zebrafish tlr2 mutant shows a broad function of this toll-like receptor in transcriptional and metabolic control and defense to Mycobacterium marinum infection. BMC Genomics. 20:878
Khalil, R., Lalai, R.A., Wiweger, M.I., Avramut, C.M., Koster, A.J., Spaink, H.P., Bruijn, J.A., Hogendoorn, P.C.W., Baelde, H.J. (2019) Glomerular permeability is not affected by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan deficiency in zebrafish embryos. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology. 317(5):F1211-F1216
van Wijk, R.C., Krekels, E.H., Kantae, V., Ordas, A., Kreling, T., Harms, A.C., Hankemeier, T., Spaink, H.P., van der Graaf, P.H. (2019) Mechanistic and quantitative understanding of pharmacokinetics in zebrafish larvae through nanoscale blood sampling and metabolite modelling of paracetamol. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 371(1):15-24
van Steijn, L., Verbeek, F.J., Spaink, H.P., Merks, R.M.H. (2019) Predicting Metabolism from Gene Expression in an Improved Whole-Genome Metabolic Network Model of Danio rerio. Zebrafish. 16(4):348-362
Rougeot, J., Torraca, V., Zakrzewska, A., Kanwal, Z., Jansen, H.J., Sommer, F., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2019) RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a cxcl11 Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage Polarization During Mycobacterial Infection. Frontiers in immunology. 10:832
Henderson, F., Johnston, H.R., Badrock, A.P., Jones, E.A., Forster, D., Nagaraju, R.T., Evangelou, C., Kamarashev, J., Green, M., Fairclough, M., Barinaga-Rementeria Ramirez, I., He, S., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., Hollywood, K., Dunn, W.B., Spaink, H.P., Smith, M.P., Lorigan, P., Claude, E., Williams, K.J., McMahon, A.W., Hurlstone, A. (2019) Enhanced fatty acid scavenging and glycerophospholipid metabolism accompanies melanocyte neoplasia progression in zebrafish. Cancer research. 79(9):2136-2151
Dickmeis, T., Feng, Y., Mione, M.C., Ninov, N., Santoro, M., Spaink, H.P., Gut, P. (2019) Nano-Sampling and Reporter Tools to Study Metabolic Regulation in Zebrafish. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology. 7:15
van Wijk, R.C., Krekels, E.H.J., Kantae, V., Harms, A.C., Hankemeier, T., van der Graaf, P.H., Spaink, H.P. (2019) Impact of post-hatching maturation on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in zebrafish larvae. Scientific Reports. 9:2149
Cordero-Maldonado, M.L., Perathoner, S., van der Kolk, K.J., Boland, R., Heins-Marroquin, U., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H., Crawford, A.D., de Sonneville, J. (2019) Deep learning image recognition enables efficient genome editing in zebrafish by automated injections. PLoS One. 14:e0202377
Kuo, C.L., Kallemeijn, W.W., Lelieveld, L.T., Mirzaian, M., Zoutendijk, I., Vardi, A., Futerman, A.H., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Overkleeft, H.S., Aerts, J.M.F.G., Artola, M. (2019) In vivo inactivation of glycosidases by conduritol B epoxide and cyclophellitol as revealed by activity-based protein profiling. The FEBS journal. 286(3):584-600
Tudorache, C., Slabbekoorn, H., Robbers, Y., Hin, E., Meijer, J.H., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J.M. (2018) Biological clock function is linked to proactive and reactive personality types. BMC Biology. 16:148
Khalil, R., Koop, K., Kreutz, R., Spaink, H.P., Hogendoorn, P.C.W., Bruijn, J.A., Baelde, H.J. (2018) Increased dynamin expression precedes proteinuria in glomerular disease. The Journal of pathology. 247(2):177-185
Castillo-Robles, J., Ramírez, L., Spaink, H.P., Lomelí, H. (2018) smarce1 mutants have a defective endocardium and an increased expression of cardiac transcription factors in zebrafish. Scientific Reports. 8:15369
Koch, B.E.V., Yang, S., Lamers, G., Stougaard, J., Spaink, H.P. (2018) Intestinal microbiome adjusts the innate immune setpoint during colonization through negative regulation of MyD88. Nature communications. 9:4099
Jarque, S., Fetter, E., Veneman, W.J., Spaink, H.P., Peravali, R., Strähle, U., Scholz, S. (2018) An automated screening method for detecting compounds with goitrogenic activity using transgenic zebrafish embryos. PLoS One. 13:e0203087
Yang, J., Meng, Z., Liu, Q., Shimada, Y., Olsthoorn, R.C.L., Spaink, H.P., Herrmann, A., Kros, A. (2018) Performing DNA nanotechnology operations on a zebrafish. Chemical science. 9:7271-7276
Schulthess, P., van Wijk, R.C., Krekels, E.H.J., Yates, J.W.T., Spaink, H.P., van der Graaf, P.H. (2018) Outside-In Systems Pharmacology Combines Innovative Computational Methods With High-Throughput Whole Vertebrate Studies. CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 7(5):285-287
Locati, M.D., Pagano, J.F.B., Abdullah, F., Ensink, W.A., van Olst, M., van Leeuwen, S., Nehrdich, U., Spaink, H.P., Rauwerda, H., Jonker, M.J., Dekker, R.J., Breit, T. (2018) Identifying small RNAs derived from maternal- and somatic-type rRNAs in Zebrafish Development. Genome. 61(5):371-378
Travin, D., Popov, I., Guler, A.T., Medvedev, D., van der Plas-Duivesteijn, S., Varela, M., Kolder, I.C.R.M., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Palmblad, M. (2017) COMICS: Cartoon Visualization of Omics Data in Spatial Context using Anatomical Ontologies. Journal of Proteome Research. 17(1):739-744
Racz, P.I., Wildwater, M., Rooseboom, M., Kerkhof, E., Pieters, R., Yebra-Pimentel, E.S., Dirks, R.P., Spaink, H.P., Smulders, C., Whale, G.F. (2017) Application of Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Danio rerio embryo (zebrafish) as model systems to screen for developmental and reproductive toxicity of Piperazine compounds. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 44:11-16
Zhang, X., Stockhammer, O.W., de Boer, L., Vischer, N.O.E., Spaink, H.P., Grijpma, D.W., Zaat, S.A.J. (2017) The zebrafish embryo as a model to quantify early inflammatory cell responses to biomaterials. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. 105(9):2522-2532
Veneman, W.J., Spaink, H.P., Brun, N.R., Bosker, T., Vijver, M.G. (2017) Pathway analysis of systemic transcriptome responses to injected polystyrene particles in zebrafish larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 190:112-120
Locati, M.D., Pagano, J.F.B., Girard, G., Ensink, W.A., van Olst, M., van Leeuwen, S., Nehrdich, U., Spaink, H.P., Rauwerda, H., Jonker, M.J., Dekker, R.J., Breit, T.M. (2017) Expression of Distinct Maternal and Somatic 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA Types during Zebrafish Development. RNA (New York, N.Y.). 23(8):1188-1199
Chatzopoulou, A., Schoonheim, P.J., Torraca, V., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J. (2017) Functional analysis reveals no transcriptional role for the glucocorticoid receptor β-isoform in zebrafish. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 447:61-70
Guo, Y., Veneman, W.J., Spaink, H.P., Verbeek, F.J. (2017) Three-dimensional reconstruction and measurements of zebrafish larvae from high-throughput axial-view in vivo imaging.. Biomedical Optics Express. 8:2611-2634
Rauwerda, H., Pagano, J.F., de Leeuw, W.C., Ensink, W., Nehrdich, U., de Jong, M., Jonker, M., Spaink, H.P., Breit, T.M. (2017) Transcriptome dynamics in early zebrafish embryogenesis determined by high-resolution time course analysis of 180 successive, individual zebrafish embryos. BMC Genomics. 18:287
Locati, M.D., Pagano, J.F., Ensink, W.A., van Olst, M., van Leeuwen, S., Nehrdich, U., Zhu, K., Spaink, H.P., Girard, G., Rauwerda, H., Jonker, M.J., Dekker, R.J., Breit, T.M. (2017) Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons. RNA (New York, N.Y.). 23(4):446-456
Kantae, V., Krekels, E.H., Ordas, A., González, O., van Wijk, R.C., Harms, A.C., Racz, P.I., van der Graaf, P.H., Spaink, H.P., Hankemeier, T. (2016) Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Paracetamol Uptake and Clearance in Zebrafish Larvae: Expanding the Allometric Scale in Vertebrates with Five Orders of Magnitude. Zebrafish. 13(6):504-510
Hosseini, R., Lamers, G.E., Soltani, H.M., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J. (2016) Efferocytosis and extrusion of leukocytes determine the progression of early mycobacterial pathogenesis. Journal of Cell Science. 129(18):3385-95
Kolder, I.C., van der Plas-Duivesteijn, S.J., Tan, G., Wiegertjes, G.F., Forlenza, M., Guler, A.T., Travin, D.Y., Nakao, M., Moritomo, T., Irnazarow, I., den Dunnen, J.T., Anvar, S.Y., Jansen, H.J., Dirks, R.P., Palmblad, M., Lenhard, B., Henkel, C.V., Spaink, H.P. (2016) A full-body transcriptome and proteome resource for the European common carp. BMC Genomics. 17:701
Yang, J., Shimada, Y., Olsthoorn, R.C., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., Spaink, H.P., Kros, A. (2016) Application of Coiled Coil Peptides in Liposomal Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery Using a Zebrafish Xenograft Model. ACS nano. 10(8):7428-35
Chatzopoulou, A., Heijmans, J.P., Burgerhout, E., Oskam, N., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H., Schaaf, M.J. (2016) Glucocorticoid-induced attenuation of the inflammatory response in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 157(7):2772-84
Pagano, J.F., Rauwerda, H., de Leeuw, W.C., Wackers, P., de Jong, M., Ensink, W., Dekker, R., Nehrdich, U., Spaink, H.P., Jonker, M., Breit, T.M. (2016) Transcriptome data on maternal RNA of 24 individual zebrafish eggs from five sibling mothers. Data in brief. 8:69-72
Staal, F., Spaink, H., Fibbe, W.E. (2016) Visualizing human Hematopoietic stem cell trafficking in vivo using a zebrafish xenograft model. Stem cells and development. 25(4):360-5
Rauwerda, H., Wackers, P., Pagano, J.F., de Jong, M., Ensink, W., Dekker, R., Nehrdich, U., Spaink, H.P., Jonker, M., Breit, T.M. (2016) Mother-Specific Signature in the Maternal Transcriptome Composition of Mature, Unfertilized Zebrafish Eggs. PLoS One. 11:e0147151
Wiegertjes, G.F., Wentzel, A.S., Spaink, H.P., Elks, P.M., Fink, I.R. (2016) Polarization of immune responses in fish: The 'macrophages first' point of view. Molecular immunology. 69:146-56
Benard, E.L., Rougeot, J., Racz, P.I., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2016) Transcriptomic Approaches in the Zebrafish Model for Tuberculosis-Insights Into Host- and Pathogen-specific Determinants of the Innate Immune Response. Advances in genetics. 95:217-51
Tulotta, C., He, S., Chen, L., Groenewoud, A., van der Ent, W., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2016) Imaging of Human Cancer Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Micrometastasis in a Zebrafish Xenogeneic Engraftment Model. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1451:155-69
Tulotta, C., He, S., van der Ent, W., Chen, L., Groenewoud, A., Spaink, H.P., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2016) Imaging Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis in a Zebrafish Embryo Model. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 916:239-63
van der Ent, W., Veneman, W.J., Groenewoud, A., Chen, L., Tulotta, C., Hogendoorn, P.C., Spaink, H.P., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2016) Automation of Technology for Cancer Research. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 916:315-32
Locati, M.D., Terpstra, I., de Leeuw, W.C., Kuzak, M., Rauwerda, H., Ensink, W.A., van Leeuwen, S., Nehrdich, U., Spaink, H.P., Jonker, M.J., Breit, T.M., Dekker, R.J. (2015) Improving small RNA-seq by using a synthetic spike-in set for size-range quality control together with a set for data normalization. Nucleic acids research. 43:e89
Yang, S., Marín-Juez, R., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P. (2015) Common and specific downstream signaling targets controlled by Tlr2 and Tlr5 innate immune signaling in zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 16:547
Chatzopoulou, A., Roy, U., Meijer, A.H., Alia, A., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J. (2015) Transcriptional and Metabolic Effects of Glucocorticoid Receptor α and β Signaling in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 156(5):1757-69
Koch, B.E., Stougaard, J., Spaink, H.P. (2015) Keeping track of the growing number of biological functions of chitin and its interaction partners in biomedical research. Glycobiology. 25(5):469-82
Veneman, W.J., de Sonneville, J., van der Kolk, K.J., Ordas, A., Al-Ars, Z., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P. (2015) Analysis of RNAseq datasets from a comparative infectious disease zebrafish model using GeneTiles bioinformatics. Immunogenetics. 67(3):135-47
Torraca, V., Cui, C., Boland, R., Bebelman, J.P., van der Sar, A.M., Smit, M.J., Siderius, M., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2015) The CXCR3/CXCL11 signaling axis mediates macrophage recruitment and dissemination of mycobacterial infection. Disease models & mechanisms. 8(3):253-69
Ordas, A., Raterink, R.J., Jansen, H.J., Cunningham, F., Wiweger, M.I., Jong-Raadsen, S., Bates, R.H., Barros, D., Meijer, A.H., Vreeken, R.J., Ballell-Pages, L., Dirks, R.P., Hankemeier, T., Spaink, H.P. (2015) Testing tuberculosis drug efficacy in a zebrafish high-throughput translational medicine screen. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59(2):753-62
Benard, E.L., Racz, P.I., Rougeot, J., Nezhinsky, A.E., Verbeek, F.J., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2015) Macrophage-Expressed Perforins Mpeg1 and Mpeg1.2 Have an Anti-Bacterial Function in Zebrafish. Journal of Innate Immunity. 7(2):136-52
Jiménez-Amilburu, V., Jong-Raadsen, S., Bakkers, J., Spaink, H.P., Marín-Juez, R. (2015) GLUT12 deficiency during early development results in heart failure and a diabetic phenotype. The Journal of endocrinology. 224(1):1-15
Marín-Juez, R., Rovira, M., Crespo, D., van der Vaart, M., Spaink, H.P., Planas, J.V. (2015) GLUT2-mediated glucose uptake and availability are required for embryonic brain development in zebrafish. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 35(1):74-85
Palstra, A.P., Rovira, M., Rizo, D., Torrella, J.R., Spaink, H.P., Planas, J.V. (2014) Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 15:1136
Benard, E.L., Roobol, S.J., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2014) Phagocytosis of mycobacteria by zebrafish macrophages is dependent on the scavenger receptor Marco, a key control factor of pro-inflammatory signalling. Developmental and comparative immunology. 47(2):223-33
Hosseini, R., Lamers, G.E., Hodzic, Z., Meijer, A.H., Schaaf, M.J., Spaink, H.P. (2014) Correlative light and electron microscopy imaging of autophagy in a zebrafish infection model. Autophagy. 10(10):1844-57
Kanwal, Z., Wiegertjes, G.F., Veneman, W.J., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P. (2014) Comparative studies of Toll-like receptor signalling using zebrafish. Developmental and comparative immunology. 46(1):35-52
Marín-Juez, R., Jong-Raadsen, S., Yang, S., Spaink, H.P. (2014) Hyperinsulinemia induces insulin resistance and immune suppression via Ptpn6/Shp1 in zebrafish. The Journal of endocrinology. 222(2):229-41
Torraca, V., Masud, S., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2014) Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model. Disease models & mechanisms. 7:785-797
Veneman, W.J., Marín-Juez, R., de Sonneville, J., Ordas, A., Jong-Raadsen, S., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P. (2014) Establishment and Optimization of a High Throughput Setup to Study Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium marinum Infection as a Model for Drug Discovery. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. (88):e51649
Elks, P.M., van der Vaart, M., van Hensbergen, V., Schutz, E., Redd, M.J., Murayama, E., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2014) Mycobacteria Counteract a TLR-Mediated Nitrosative Defense Mechanism in a Zebrafish Infection Model. PLoS One. 9:e100928
van der Vaart, M., Korbee, C.J., Lamers, G.E., Tengeler, A.C., Hosseini, R., Haks, M.C., Ottenhoff, T.H., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2014) The DNA Damage-Regulated Autophagy Modulator DRAM1 Links Mycobacterial Recognition via TLR-MYD88 to Autophagic Defense. Cell Host & Microbe. 15(6):753-767
van Amerongen, Y.F., Roy, U., Spaink, H.P., de Groot, H.J., Huster, D., Schiller, J., Alia, A. (2014) Zebrafish Brain Lipid Characterization and Quantification by (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Zebrafish. 11(3):240-7
Briolat, V., Jouneau, L., Carvalho, R., Palha, N., Langevin, C., Herbomel, P., Schwartz, O., Spaink, H.P., Levraud, J.P., Boudinot, P. (2014) Contrasted Innate Responses to Two Viruses in Zebrafish: Insights into the Ancestral Repertoire of Vertebrate IFN-Stimulated Genes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 192:4328-41
van der Plas-Duivesteijn, S.J., Mohammed, Y., Dalebout, H., Meijer, A., Botermans, A., Hoogendijk, J.L., Henneman, A.A., Deelder, A.M., Spaink, H.P., and Palmblad, M. (2014) Identifying Proteins in Zebrafish Embryos Using Spectral Libraries Generated from Dissected Adult Organs and Tissues. Journal of Proteome Research. 13(3):1537-44
Spaink, H.P., Jansen, H.J., and Dirks, R.P. (2014) Advances in genomics of bony fish. Briefings in Functional Genomics. 13(2):144-56
Koch, B.E., Stougaard, J., and Spaink, H.P. (2014) Spatial and temporal expression patterns of chitinase genes in developing zebrafish embryos. Gene expression patterns : GEP. 14(2):69-77
Pietretti, D., Scheer, M., Fink, I.R., Taverne, N., Savelkoul, H.F., Spaink, H.P., Forlenza, M., and Wiegertjes, G.F. (2014) Identification and functional characterization of nonmammalian Toll-like receptor 20. Immunogenetics. 66(2):123-141
Meijer, A.H., van der Vaart, M., and Spaink, H.P. (2014) Real-time imaging and genetic dissection of host-microbe interactions in zebrafish. Cellular Microbiology. 16(1):39-49
Rougeot, J., Zakrzewska, A., Kanwal, Z., Jansen, H.J., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H. (2014) RNA Sequencing of FACS-Sorted Immune Cell Populations from Zebrafish Infection Models to Identify Cell Specific Responses to Intracellular Pathogens. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1197:261-74
Zope, H.R., Versluis, F., Ordas, A., Voskuhl, J., Spaink, H.P., and Kros, A. (2013) In Vitro and In Vivo Supramolecular Modification of Biomembranes Using a Lipidated Coiled-Coil Motif. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). 52(52):14247-51
Pietretti, D., Spaink, H.P., Falco, A., Forlenza, M., and Wiegertjes, G.F. (2013) Accessory molecules for Toll-like receptors in Teleost fish. Identification of TLR4 interactor with leucine-rich repeats (TRIL). Molecular immunology. 56(4):745-756
Palmblad, M., Henkel, C.V., Dirks, R.P., Meijer, A.H., Deelder, A.M., and Spaink, H.P. (2013) Parallel deep transcriptome and proteome analysis of zebrafish larvae. BMC research notes. 6(1):428
Ordas, A., Kanwal, Z., Lindenberg, V., Rougeot, J., Mink, M., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2013) MicroRNA-146 function in the innate immune transcriptome response of zebrafish embryos to Salmonella typhimurium infection. BMC Genomics. 14(1):696
Laroche, F.J., Tulotta, C., Lamers, G.E., Meijer, A.H., Yang, P., Verbeek, F.J., Blaise, M., Stougaard, J., and Spaink, H.P. (2013) The embryonic expression patterns of zebrafish genes encoding LysM-domains. Gene expression patterns : GEP. 13(7):212-24
Spaink, H.P., Cui, C., Wiweger, M.I., Jansen, H.J., Veneman, W.J., Marín-Juez, R., de Sonneville, J., Ordas, A., Torraca, V., van der Ent, W., Leenders, W.P., Meijer, A.H., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., and Dirks, R.P. (2013) Robotic injection of zebrafish embryos for high-throughput screening in disease models. Methods (San Diego, Calif.). 62(3):246-54
van der Vaart, M., van Soest, J.J., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2013) Functional analysis of a zebrafish myd88 mutant identifies key transcriptional components of the innate immune system. Disease models & mechanisms. 6(3):841-54
Driessen, M., Kienhuis, A.S., Pennings, J.L., Pronk, T.E., van de Brandhof, E.J., Roodbergen, M., Spaink, H.P., van de Water, B., and van der Ven, L.T. (2013) Exploring the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for the evaluation of liver toxicity by histopathology and expression profiling. Archives of toxicology. 87(5):807-23
Veneman, W.J., Stockhammer, O.W., de Boer, L., Zaat, S.A., Meijer, A.H., and Spaink, H.P. (2013) A zebrafish high throughput screening system used for Staphylococcus epidermidis infection marker discovery. BMC Genomics. 14(1):255
Kanwal, Z., Zakrzewska, A., den Hertog, J., Spaink, H.P., Schaaf, M.J., and Meijer, A.H. (2013) Deficiency in Hematopoietic Phosphatase Ptpn6/Shp1 Hyperactivates the Innate Immune System and Impairs Control of Bacterial Infections in Zebrafish Embryos. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 190(4):1631-1645
Palstra, A.P., Beltran, S., Burgerhout, E., Brittijn, S.A., Magnoni, L.J., Henkel, C.V., Jansen, H.J., van den Thillart, G.E., Spaink, H.P., and Planas, J.V. (2013) Deep RNA sequencing of the skeletal muscle transcriptome in swimming fish. PLoS One. 8(1):e53171
He, S., Lamers, G.E., Beenakker, J.W., Cui, C., Ghotra, V.P., Danen, E.H., Meijer, A.H., Spaink, H.P., and Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2012) Neutrophil-mediated experimental metastasis is enhanced by VEGFR inhibition in a zebrafish xenograft model. The Journal of pathology. 227(4):431-445
Mohseny, A.B., Xiao, W., Carvalho, R., Spaink, H.P., Hogendoorn, P.C., and Cleton-Jansen, AM. (2012) An osteosarcoma zebrafish model implicates Mmp-19 and Ets-1 as well as reduced host immune response in angiogenesis and migration. The Journal of pathology. 227(2):245-253
Henkel, C.V., Dirks, R.P., Jansen, H.J., Forlenza, M., Wiegertjes, G.F., Howe, K., van den Thillart, G.E., and Spaink, H.P. (2012) Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish. 9(2):59-67
Blaise, M., Alsarraf, H.M., Wong, J.E., Midtgaard, S.R., Laroche, F., Schack, L., Spaink, H., Stougaard, J., Thirup, S. (2012) Crystal structure of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish. Proteins. 80(6):1694-1698
Benard, E.L., van der Sar, A.M., Ellett, F., Lieschke, G.J., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2012) Infection of zebrafish embryos with intracellular bacterial pathogens. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE. (61)
Ghotra, V.P., He, S., de Bont, H., van der Ent, W., Spaink, H.P., van de Water, B., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., and Danen, E.H. (2012) Automated whole animal bio-imaging assay for human cancer dissemination. PLoS One. 7(2):e31281
van der Vaart, M., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2012) Pathogen Recognition and Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Zebrafish. Advances in hematology. 2012:159807
Schartl, M., Kneitz, S., Wilde, B., Wagner, T., Henkel, C.V., Spaink, H.P., and Meierjohann, S. (2012) Conserved Expression Signatures between Medaka and Human Pigment Cell Tumors. PLoS One. 7(5):e37880
Ordas, A., Hegedus, Z., Henkel, C.V., Stockhammer, O.W., Butler, D., Jansen, H.J., Racz, P., Mink, M., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2011) Deep sequencing of the innate immune transcriptomic response of zebrafish embryos to Salmonella infection. Fish & shellfish immunology. 31(5):716-24
van Soest, J.J., Stockhammer, O.W., Ordas, A., Bloemberg, G.V., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2011) Comparison of static immersion and intravenous injection systems for exposure of zebrafish embryos to the natural pathogen Edwardsiella tarda. BMC immunology. 12(1):58
Alsarraf, H.M., Laroche, F., Spaink, H., Thirup, S., and Blaise, M. (2011) Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish. Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications. 67(10):1253-1256
He, S., Krens, S.G., Zhan, H., Gong, Z., Hogendoorn, P.C., Spaink, H.P., and Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2011) A DeltaRaf1-ER-inducible oncogenic zebrafish liver cell model identifies hepatocellular carcinoma signatures. The Journal of pathology. 225(1):19-28
Rotman, J., van Gils, W., Butler, D., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2011) Rapid screening of innate immune gene expression in zebrafish using reverse transcription - multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. BMC research notes. 4(1):196
Ali, S., Champagne, D.L., Spaink, H.P., and Richardson, M.K. (2011) Zebrafish embryos and larvae: A new generation of disease models and drug screens. Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews. 93(2):115-133
Meijer, A.H., and Spaink, H.P. (2011) Host-Pathogen Interactions Made Transparent with the Zebrafish Model. Current drug targets. 12(7):1000-17
Carvalho, R., de Sonneville, J., Stockhammer, O.W., Savage, N.D., Veneman, W.J., Ottenhoff, T.H., Dirks, R.P., Meijer, A.H., and Spaink, H.P. (2011) A high-throughput screen for tuberculosis progression. PLoS One. 6(2):e16779
Harrison, M.R., Georgiou, A.S., Spaink, H.P., and Cunliffe, V.T. (2011) The epigenetic regulator Histone Deacetylase 1 promotes transcription of a core neurogenic programme in zebrafish embryos. BMC Genomics. 12(1):24
Cui, C., Benard, E.L., Kanwal, Z., Stockhammer, O.W., van der Vaart, M., Zakrzewska, A., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2011) Infectious disease modeling and innate immune function in zebrafish embryos. Methods in cell biology. 105:273-308
Palstra, A.P., Tudorache, C., Rovira, M., Brittijn, S.A., Burgerhout, E., van den Thillart, G.E., Spaink, H.P., and Planas, J.V. (2010) Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model: swimming economy, swimming-enhanced growth and muscle growth marker gene expression. PLoS One. 5(12):e14483
Stockhammer, O.W., Rauwerda, H., Wittink, F.R., Breit, T.M., Meijer, A.H., and Spaink, H.P. (2010) Transcriptome analysis of Traf6 function in the innate immune response of zebrafish embryos. Molecular immunology. 48(1-3):179-190
Zakrzewska, A., Cui, C., Stockhammer, O.W., Benard, E.L., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2010) Macrophage-specific gene functions in Spi1-directed innate immunity. Blood. 116(3):e1-e11
Rauwerda, H., de Jong, M., de Leeuw, W.C., Spaink, H.P., and Breit, T.M. (2010) Integrating heterogeneous sequence information for transcriptome-wide microarray design; a Zebrafish example. BMC research notes. 3:192
Kabli, S., He, S., Spaink, H.P., Hurlstone, A., Jagalska, E.S., De Groot, H.J., and Alia, A. (2010) In vivo magnetic resonance imaging to detect malignant melanoma in adult zebrafish. Zebrafish. 7(2):143-148
de Jong, M., Rauwerda, H., Bruning, O., Verkooijen, J., Spaink, H.P., and Breit, T.M. (2010) RNA isolation method for single embryo transcriptome analysis in zebrafish. BMC research notes. 3:73
van den Akker, W.M., Durston, A.J., and Spaink, H.P. (2010) Identification of hoxb1b downstream genes: hoxb1b as a regulatory factor controlling transcriptional networks and cell movement during zebrafish gastrulation. The International journal of developmental biology. 54(1):55-62
Mione, M., Meijer, A.H., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., Spaink, H.P., and Trede, N.S. (2009) Disease modeling in zebrafish: cancer and immune responses-a report on a workshop held in Spoleto, Italy, July 20-22, 2009. Zebrafish. 6(4):445-451
Hegedus, Z., Zakrzewska, A., Agoston, V.C., Ordas, A., Rácz, P., Mink, M., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2009) Deep sequencing of the zebrafish transcriptome response to mycobacterium infection. Molecular immunology. 46(15):2918-2930
Schaaf, M.J., Koopmans, W.J., Meckel, T., van Noort, J., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., Schmidt, T.S., and Spaink, H.P. (2009) Single-molecule microscopy reveals membrane microdomain organization of cells in a living vertebrate. Biophysical journal. 97(4):1206-1214
van der Sar, A.M., Spaink, H.P., Zakrzewska, A., Bitter, W., and Meijer, A.H. (2009) Specificity of the zebrafish host transcriptome response to acute and chronic mycobacterial infection and the role of innate and adaptive immune components. Molecular immunology. 46(11-12):2317-2332
Schaaf, M.J., Chatzopoulou, A., and Spaink, H.P. (2009) The zebrafish as a model system for glucocorticoid receptor research. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology. 153(1):75-82
Stockhammer, O.W., Zakrzewska, A., Hegedûs, Z., Spaink, H.P., and Meijer, A.H. (2009) Transcriptome profiling and functional analyses of the zebrafish embryonic innate immune response to Salmonella infection. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 182(9):5641-5653
Kabli, S., Spaink, H.P., De Groot, H.J., and Alia, A. (2009) In vivo metabolite profile of adult zebrafish brain obtained by high-resolution localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. 29(2):275-281
Brittijn, S.A., Duivesteijn, S.J., Belmamoune, M., Bertens, L.F., Bitter, W., Debruijn, J.D., Champagne, D.L., Cuppen, E., Flik, G., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M., Janssen, R.A., de Jong, I.M., de Kloet, E.R., Kros, A., Meijer, A.H., Metz, J.R., van der Sar, A.M., Schaaf, M.J., Schulte-Merker, S., Spaink, H.P., Tak, P.P., Verbeek, F.J., Vervoordeldonk, M.J., Vonk, F.J., Witte, F., Yuan, H., and Richardson, M.K. (2009) Zebrafish development and regeneration: new tools for biomedical research. The International journal of developmental biology. 53(5-6):835-850
Webb, K.J., Norton, W.H.J., Trumbach, D., Meijer, A.H., Ninkovic, J., Topp, S., Heck, D., Marr, C., Wurst, W., Theis, F.J., Spaink, H.P., and Bally-Cuif, L. (2009) Zebrafish reward mutants reveal novel transcripts mediating the behavioral effects of amphetamine. Genome biology. 10(7):R81
Krens, S.F., He, S., Lamers, G.E., Meijer, A.H., Bakkers, J., Schmidt, T., Spaink, H.P., and Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2008) Distinct functions for ERK1 and ERK2 in cell migration processes during zebrafish gastrulation. Developmental Biology. 319(2):370-383
Krens, S.F., Corredor-Adamez, M., He, S., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., and Spaink, H.P. (2008) ERK1 and ERK2 MAPK are key regulators of distinct gene sets in zebrafish embryogenesis. BMC Genomics. 9:196
Schaaf, M.J., Champagne, D., van Laanen, I.H., van Wijk, D.C., Meijer, A.H., Meijer, O.C., Spaink, H.P., and Richardson, M.K. (2008) Discovery of a functional glucocorticoid receptor beta-isoform in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 149(4):1591-1599
Marques, I.J., Leito, J.T., Spaink, H.P., Testerink, J., Jaspers, R.T., Witte, F., van den Berg, S., and Bagowski, C.P. (2008) Transcriptome analysis of the response to chronic constant hypoxia in zebrafish hearts. Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology. 178(1):77-92
Meijer, A.H., van der Sar, A.M., Cunha, C., Lamers, G.E., Laplante, M.A., Kikuta, H., Bitter, W., Becker, T.S., and Spaink, H.P. (2008) Identification and real-time imaging of a myc-expressing neutrophil population involved in inflammation and mycobacterial granuloma formation in zebrafish. Developmental and comparative immunology. 32(1):36-49
Besser, J., Bagowski, C.P., Salas-Vidal, E., van Hemert, M.J., Bussmann, J., and Spaink, H.P. (2007) Expression analysis of the family of 14-3-3 proteins in zebrafish development. Gene expression patterns : GEP. 7(4):511-520
Kabli, S., Alia, A., Spaink, H.P., Verbeek, F.J., and De Groot, H.J.M. (2006) Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of the Adult Zebrafish. Zebrafish. 3(4):431-439
Welten, M.C.M., de Haan, S.B., ven den Boogert, N., Noordermeer, J.N., Lamers, G.E.M., Spaink, H.P., Meijer, A.H., and Verbeek, F.J. (2006) ZebraFISH: Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Protocol and Three-Dimensional Imaging of Gene Expression Patterns. Zebrafish. 3(4):465-476
He, S., Salas-Vidal, E., Rueb, S., Krens, S.F.G., Meijer, A.H., Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., and Spaink, H.P. (2006) Genetic and Transcriptome Characterization of Model Zebrafish Cell Lines. Zebrafish. 3(4):441-453
Krens, S.F., He, S., Spaink, H.P., and Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2006) Characterization and expression patterns of the MAPK family in zebrafish. Gene expression patterns : GEP. 6(8):1019-1026
Gabby Krens, S.F., Spaink, H.P., and Snaar-Jagalska, B.E. (2006) Functions of the MAPK family in vertebrate-development. FEBS letters. 580(21):4984-4990
van der Sar, A.M., Stockhammer, O.W., van der Laan, C., Spaink, H.P., Bitter, W., and Meijer, A.H. (2006) MyD88 Innate Immune Function in a Zebrafish Embryo Infection Model. Infection and Immunity. 74(4):2436-2441
van der Meer, D.L., van den Thillart, G.E., Witte, F., de Bakker, M.A., Besser, J., Richardson, M.K., Spaink, H.P., Leito, J.T., and Bagowski, C.P. (2005) Gene expression profiling of the long-term adaptive response to hypoxia in the gills of adult zebrafish. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. 286(5):R1512-1519
Corredor-Adamez, M., Welten, M.C., Spaink, H.P., Jeffery, J.E., Schoon, R.T., de Bakker, M.A., Bagowski, C.P., Meijer, A.H., Verbeek, F.J., and Richardson, M.K. (2005) Genomic annotation and transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) hox complex with description of a novel member, hoxb13a. Evolution & development. 7(5):362-375
Salas-Vidal, E., Meijer, A.H., Cheng, X., and Spaink, H.P. (2005) Genomic annotation and expression analysis of the zebrafish Rho small GTPase family during development and bacterial infection. Genomics. 86(1):25-37
Meijer, A.H., Verbeek, F.J., Salas-Vidal, E., Corredor-Adámez, M., Bussman, J., van der Sar, A.M., Otto, G.W., Geisler, R., and Spaink, H.P. (2005) Transcriptome profiling of adult zebrafish at the late stage of chronic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium marinum infection. Molecular immunology. 42(10):1185-1203
Bakkers, J., Kramer, C., Pothof, J., Quaedvlieg, N.E., Spaink, H.P., and Hammerschmidt, M. (2004) Has2 is required upstream of Rac1 to govern dorsal migration of lateral cells during zebrafish gastrulation. Development (Cambridge, England). 131(3):525-537
Meijer, A.H., Gabby Krens, S.F., Medina Rodriguez, I.A., He, S., Bitter, W., Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa B., and Spaink, H.P. (2004) Expression analysis of the Toll-like receptor and TIR domain adaptor families of zebrafish. Molecular immunology. 40(11):773-783
Snaar-Jagalska, B.E., Krens, S.F., Robina, I., Wang, L.X., and Spaink, H.P. (2003) Specific activation of ERK pathways by chitin oligosaccharides in embryonic zebrafish cell lines. Glycobiology. 13(10):725-732
Kamst, E., Bakkers, J., Quaedvlieg, N.E., Pilling, J., Kijne, J.W., Lugtenberg, B.J., and Spaink, H.P. (1999) Chitin oligosaccharide synthesis by rhizobia and zebrafish embryos starts by glycosyl transfer to O4 of the reducing-terminal residue. Biochemistry. 13:4045-4052
Bakkers, J., Kijne, J.W. and Spaink, H.P. (1999) Function of chitin oligosaccharides in plant and animal development. In Chitin and chitinases, R.A.A. Muzzarelli and P. Jollès, eds. Basel/Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag. :69-81
Bakkers, J., Semino, C.E., Stroband, H., Kijne, J.W., Robbins, P.W., and Spaink, H.P. (1997) An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94(15):7982-7986