BIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
ZFIN ID: ZDB-PERS-031215-3
Gil Levkowitz received his BSc. and MSc. from Tel Aviv University in Israel. He conducted his Ph.D. research in Prof. Yosef Yarden’s laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Science focusing on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, and earned his Ph.D. degree at 2000. He was a Post-Doctoral Fellow (2000-2002) in Arnon Rosenthal’s laboratory at Genentech Inc., (South San Francisco, USA) where he studied the embryonic development of the dopamine- secreting [termed ‘dopaminergic’] neuronal cell type, which is associated with Parkinson’s disease as well as other neurological disorders. He then spent approximately two years (2002-2003) as a project team leader at Rinat-Neuroscience Corp. in Palo Alto. USA (now Rinat-Pfizer Inc.), conducting research and pre-clinical development of drugs for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Since returning to Israel he has been a Senior Scientist and then an Associate Professor at the Weizmann Institute. His lab is using zebrafish to study genetic pathways controlling hypothalamic neuronal circuits that have been associated with neurological conditions such as depression, chronic stress, autism and obesity.
Anbalagan, S., Gordon, L., Blechman, J., Matsuoka, R.L., Rajamannar, P., Wircer, E., Biran, J., Reuveny, A., Leshkowitz, D., Stainier, D.Y.R., Levkowitz, G. (2018) Pituicyte Cues Regulate the Development of Permeable Neuro-Vascular Interfaces. Developmental Cell. 47(6):711-726.e5
Gur, D., Nicolas, J.D., Brumfeld, V., Bar-Elli, O., Oron, D., Levkowitz, G. (2018) The Dual Functional Reflecting Iris of the Zebrafish. Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). 5:1800338
Wircer, E., Blechman, J., Borodovsky, N., Tsoory, M., Nunes, A.R., Oliveira, R.F., Levkowitz, G. (2017) Homeodomain protein Otp affects developmental neuropeptide switching in oxytocin neurons associated with a long-term effect on social behavior. eLIFE. 6
Amir-Zilberstein, L., Blechman, J., Sztainberg, Y., Norton, W.H., Reuveny, A., Borodovsky, N., Tahor, M., Bonkowsky, J.L., Bally-Cuif, L., Chen, A., and Levkowitz, G. (2012) Homeodomain protein otp and activity-dependent splicing modulate neuronal adaptation to stress. Neuron. 72(2):279-291
Gutnick, A., Blechman, J., Kaslin, J., Herwig, L., Belting, H.G., Affolter, M., Bonkowsky, J.L., and Levkowitz, G. (2011) The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin is required for formation of the neurovascular interface of the pituitary. Developmental Cell. 21(4):642-654
Palevitch, O., Abraham, E., Borodovsky, N., Levkowitz, G., Zohar, Y., and Gothilf, Y. (2010) Cxcl12a-Cxcr4b signaling is important for proper development of the forebrain GnRH system in zebrafish. General and comparative endocrinology. 165(2):262-268
Palevitch, O., Abraham, E., Borodovsky, N., Levkowitz, G., Zohar, Y., and Gothilf, Y. (2009) Nasal embryonic LHRH factor plays a role in the developmental migration and projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 neurons in zebrafish. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 238(1):66-75
Russek-Blum, N., Gutnick, A., Nabel-Rosen, H., Blechman, J., Staudt, N., Dorsky, R.I., Houart, C., and Levkowitz, G. (2008) Dopaminergic neuronal cluster size is determined during early forebrain patterning. Development (Cambridge, England). 135(20):3401-3413
Blechman, J., Borodovsky, N., Eisenberg, M., Nabel-Rosen, H., Grimm, J., and Levkowitz, G. (2007) Specification of hypothalamic neurons by dual regulation of the homeodomain protein Orthopedia. Development (Cambridge, England). 134(24):4417-4426
Levkowitz, G., Zeller, J., Sirotkin, H.I., French, D., Schilbach, S., Hashimoto, H., Hibi, M., Talbot, W.S., and Rosenthal, A. (2003) Zinc finger protein too few controls the development of monoaminergic neurons. Nature Neuroscience. 6(1):28-33
1. Berko-Flint, Y., G. Levkowitz and L. Vardimon. 1994. Involvement of c-Jun in the control of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity during development of chicken retinal tissue. EMBO J 13: 646-54.
2. Tzahar, E., G. Levkowitz, D. Karunagaran, L. Yi, E. Peles, S. Lavi, D. Chang, N. Liu, A. Yayon, D. Wen and Y. Yarden. 1994. ErbB-3 and ErbB-4 function as the respective low and high affinity receptors of all NDF/Heregulin isoforms. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 25226-25233.
3. Dong, Z., A. Brennan, N. Liu, Y. Yarden, G. Levkowitz, R. Mirsky and K. R. Jessen. 1995. Neu differentiation factor Is a neuron-glia signal and regulates survival, proliferation, and maturation of rat schwann cell precursors. Neuron 15: 585-596.
4. Levkowitz, G., L. N. Klapper, E. Tzahar, A. Freywald, M. Sela and Y. Yarden. 1996. Coupling of the c-Cbl proto-oncogene product to ErbB-1/EGF-receptor but not other ErbB proteins. Oncogene 12: 1117-1125.
5. Chen, X., G. Levkowitz, E. Tzahar, D. Karunagaran, S. Lavi, N. Ben-Baruch, O. Leithner, J. B. Ratzkin, S. S. Bacus and Y. Yarden. 1996. An Immunological approach reveals biological differences between the two NDF/heregulin receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 7620-7629.
6. Pinkas-Kramarski, R., L. Soussan, H. Waterman, G. Levkowitz, I. Alroy, L. Klapper, S. Lavi, J. B. Ratzkin, M. Sela and Y. Yarden. 1996. Diversification of neu differentiation factor and epidermal growth factor signaling by combinatorial receptor interactions. EMBO J 15: 2452-2467.
7. Tzahar, E., H. Waterman, X. Chen, G. Levkowitz, D. Karunagaran, S. Lavi, J. B. Ratzkin, and Y. Yarden. 1996. A hierarchical network of inter- receptor interactions determines signal transduction by Neu Differentiation factor/Neuregulin and Epidermal Growth factor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 5276-5287.
8. Tzahar, E., R. Pinkas-Kramarski, , J. B. Moyer, L N. Klapper, I. Alroy, G. Levkowitz, M. Shelly, S. Henis, M. Eisenstein, B. J. Radzkin, M. Sela, G. C. Andrews and Y. Yarden. 1997. Bivalency of EGF-like ligands drives the ErbB signaling network. EMBO J. 16: 4938-4950.
9. Pinkas-Kramarski, R., R. Eilam, I. Alroy, G. Levkowitz, P. Lonai and Y. Yarden. 1997. Differential expression of NDF/neuregulin receptors ErbB-3 and ErbB-4 and involvement in inhibition of neuronal differentiation. Oncogene 15: 2803-2815.
10. Tzahar, E., J. D. Moyer, H. Waterman, E. G.Barbacci, J. Bao, G. Levkowitz, M. Shelly, S. Strano, R. Pinkas-Kramarski, J. H.Pierce, G. C. Andrews and Y. Yarden. 1998. Pathogenic poxviruses reveal viral strategies to exploit the ErbB signaling network. EMBO J 17: 5948-5963.
11. Levkowitz, G., H. Waterman, E. Zamir, Z. Kam, S. Oved, W. Y. Langdon, L. Beguinot, B. Geiger and Y. Yarden. 1998. c-Cbl/Sli-1 regulates endocytic sorting and ubiquitination of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Genes & Dev. 12: 3663-3674.
12. Watermann, H., G. Levkowitz, I. Alroy and Y. Yarden. 1999. The RING finger of c-Cbl mediates desensitization of the EGF-receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 22151-22154.
13. Levkowitz, G., H. Waterman, S. A. Ettenberg, M. Katz, A. Y. Tysgankov, I. Alroy, S. Lavi, Iwai, K., Y. Reiss, Ciechanover A. and Y. Yarden. 1999. Ubiquitin ligase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation underlie suppression of growth factor signaling by c-Cbl/Sli-1 Molecular Cell 4: 1029-1040.
14. Levkowitz, G., S. Oved, L.N. Klapper, D. Harari,, S. Lavi, M. Sela and Y. Yarden. 2000. c-Cbl is a suppressor of the neu oncogene. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 35532-35539.
15. Wilcock, D.M. , A. Rojiani, A. Rosenthal, G. Levkowitz, S. Subbarao, J. Alamed, D. Wilson, N. Wilson, M.J. Freeman, M.N. Gordon and D. Morgan. 2004. Passive amyloid immunotherapy clears amyloid and transiently activates microglia in a transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition. 2004. J. Neurosci. 24:6144-6151.
Levkowitz, G. and Y. Yarden. 2002. Erbb. In: Wiley Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5 Vol. Set: 1197-1200.