Nam et al., 2017 - Enhanced antidiabetic efficacy and safety of compound K⁄β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in zebrafish. Journal of ginseng research   41:103-112 Full text @ J Ginseng Res

Fig. 3

The effects of various ratios of β-cyclodextrin included in compound K (CD-CK) in alloxan-induced pancreatic islet-damaged zebrafish. (A) The size change in the pancreatic islets in each group. (B) Fluorescence intensity analysis of the zebrafish pancreatic islets. (C) Representative final pancreatic islet images of the normal (NOR), alloxan (AX), compound K (CK), β-cyclodextrin (CD):CK [0:1], CD:CK [1:1], CD:CK [3:1], CD:CK [5:1] and CD:CK [10:1] groups. Pancreatic islet stained with 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose. The white arrow indicates the location of pancreatic islet. Scale bar = 100 μm. #p < 0.05; compared to the normal group. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001, compared to the alloxan group.

Fig. 4

The effects of 5μM compound K (CK) and β-cyclodextrin included in compound K (CD-CK) in alloxan-induced pancreatic islet-damaged zebrafish. (A) The size change in the pancreatic islets in each group. (B) Fluorescence intensity analysis in the pancreatic islets of zebrafish. (C) Representative final pancreatic islet images of the normal (NOR), alloxan (AX), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), glimepiride (GLM), CK, and CD-CK groups. The pancreatic islets are stained with 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose. The white arrow indicates the location of pancreatic islet. Scale bar = 100 μm. #p < 0.05 and ###p < 0.001, compared to the normal group. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001, compared to the alloxan group.

Fig. 6

The effects of β-cyclodextrin included in compound K (CD-CK) and CK (compound K) with diazoxide (DZ) in alloxan-induced pancreatic islet-damaged zebrafish. (A) The size change in the pancreatic islets in each group. (B) Fluorescence intensity analysis in the pancreatic islets of the zebrafish. (C) Representative final pancreatic islet images of the normal (NOR), alloxan (AX), DZ, CK, CK with DZ, CD-CK, and CD-CK with DZ groups. Pancreatic islets are stained with 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose. The white arrow indicates the location of pancreatic islet. Scale bar = 100 μm. ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 compared to normal. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 compared to alloxan. ++ p < 0.01.

Fig. 7

The toxicity of compound K (CK), β-cyclodextrin included in compound K (CD-CK), and glimepiride (GLM), based on zebrafish embryo testing. (A) Comparison of the toxicity results of CK, CD-CK, and GLM on zebrafish embryonic development. The data are 2 d post-treatment (dpt) statistics. (B) The heartbeat/min in zebrafish treated with CK at 2 dpt. (C) The heartbeat/min in zebrafish treated with CD-CK at 2 dpt. (D) The body length of zebrafish treated with CK at 2 dpt. (E) The body length of zebrafish treated with CD-CK at 2 dpt. ND, not determined.

Fig. 8

The toxicity of compound K (CK) and β-cyclodextrin included in compound K (CD-CK) in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression fused to the mitochondrial localization sequence (MLS) of zebrafish COXVIII (MLS-EGFP) and TUNEL assays of CK- and CD-CK-treated digestive systems in zebrafish larvae. (A) Representative whole zebrafish images. The red dotted line indicates the digestive system. Scale bar = 100 μm. (B) Size of the digestive system analysis. (C) The fluorescence intensity analysis. (D) The white arrow indicates the location of apoptosis in the digestive system. Scale bar = 50 μm. (E) Quantification of TUNEL-positive apoptosis cells. TUNEL, TdT-UTP nick end labeling. ** p < 0.01 compared to the normal (NOR) group. *** p < 0.001. + p < 0.05.

Acknowledgments:
This image is the copyrighted work of the attributed author or publisher, and ZFIN has permission only to display this image to its users. Additional permissions should be obtained from the applicable author or publisher of the image. Full text @ J Ginseng Res