||The dermal maxilla forms part of the upper jaw. It is first visible as a small dorsoventrally oriented rod of bone in the lateral region of the upper jaw. Through anterior ossification it becomes S-shaped, with its anteriormost tip directed medially (4.8 mm NL). The posteroventral end of the maxilla is connected to the dentary by a ligament. Maxillary teeth are absent in cypriniforms, but are present in other ostariophysans. Two barbels are present on the maxilla. The presence of two pairs of maxillary barbels is considered by Cavender and Coburn (1992) to be the primitive condition for the Cyprinidae.