Proposed models of transcriptional adaptation.
(A) DNA damage response can induce chromatin reorganization, increasing chromatin accessibility at the compensatory genes’ regulatory regions. (B) Mutations can lead to transcripts that are targeted for degradation through mRNA surveillance pathways. The resulting RNA fragments may trigger the compensatory response. As a secondary effect of the mutated gene’s mRNA degradation, RBPs or miRNAs normally acting on the mutated as well as the compensating genes’ mRNAs become more available to exert their stabilizing effects on the compensating genes’ mRNAs. Abbreviations: miRNAs, microRNAs; RBPs, RNA-binding proteins; TFs, transcription factors.