Macrophages target Salmonella by Lc3-associated phagocytosis in a systemic infection model

Masud, S., Prajsnar, T.K., Torraca, V., Lamers, G.E.M., Benning, M., Van Der Vaart, M., Meijer, A.H.
Autophagy   15(5): 796-812 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Masud, Samrah, Meijer, Annemarie H., Prajsnar, Thomasz, Torraca, Vincenzo, van der Vaart, Michiel
Typhimurium, ATG5, Autophagy, LC3, LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), NADPH oxidase, ROS, Rubicon, zebrafish
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Autophagy/physiology
  • Bacteremia/genetics
  • Bacteremia/immunology
  • Bacteremia/microbiology
  • Bacteremia/pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian
  • Macrophages/physiology*
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins/physiology*
  • Phagocytosis/genetics*
  • Phagocytosis/immunology
  • Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal*/genetics
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal*/immunology
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal*/metabolism
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal*/microbiology
  • Salmonella typhimurium/immunology*
  • Zebrafish*/embryology
  • Zebrafish*/genetics
  • Zebrafish*/immunology
  • Zebrafish*/microbiology
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/physiology*
30676840 Full text @ Autophagy
Innate immune defense against intracellular pathogens, like Salmonella, relies heavily on the autophagy machinery of the host. This response is studied intensively in epithelial cells, the target of Salmonella during gastrointestinal infections. However, little is known of the role that autophagy plays in macrophages, the predominant carriers of this pathogen during systemic disease. Here we utilize a zebrafish embryo model to study the interaction of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium with the macroautophagy/autophagy machinery of macrophages in vivo. We show that phagocytosis of live but not heat-killed Salmonella triggers recruitment of the autophagy marker GFP-Lc3 in a variety of patterns labeling tight or spacious bacteria-containing compartments, also revealed by electron microscopy. Neutrophils display similar GFP-Lc3 associations, but genetic modulation of the neutrophil/macrophage balance and ablation experiments show that macrophages are critical for the defense response. Deficiency of atg5 reduces GFP-Lc3 recruitment and impairs host resistance, in contrast to atg13 deficiency, indicating that Lc3-Salmonella association at this stage is independent of the autophagy preinitiation complex and that macrophages target Salmonella by Lc3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). In agreement, GFP-Lc3 recruitment and host resistance are impaired by deficiency of Rubcn/Rubicon, known as a negative regulator of canonical autophagy and an inducer of LAP. We also found strict dependency on NADPH oxidase, another essential factor for LAP. Both Rubcn and NADPH oxidase are required to activate a Salmonella biosensor for reactive oxygen species inside infected macrophages. These results identify LAP as the major host protective autophagy-related pathway responsible for macrophage defense against Salmonella during systemic infection. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related gene; BECN1: Beclin 1; CFU: colony forming units; CYBA/P22PHOX: cytochrome b-245, alpha chain; CYBB/NOX2: cytochrome b-245 beta chain; dpf: days post fertilization; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; GFP: green fluorescent protein; hfp: hours post fertilization; hpi: hours post infection; IRF8: interferon regulatory factor 8; Lcp1/L-plastin: lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1; LAP: LC3-associated phagocytosis; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3; mCherry: red fluorescent protein; mpeg1: macrophage expressed gene 1; mpx: myeloid specific peroxidase; NADPH oxidase: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; NCF4/P40PHOX: neutrophil cytosolic factor 4; NTR-mCherry: nitroreductase-mCherry fusion; PTU: phenylthiourea; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB-1 inducible coiled coin 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RUBCN/RUBICON: RUN and cysteine rich domain containing BECN1-interacting protein; SCV: Salmonella-containing vacuole; S. Typhimurium/S.T: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; Tg: transgenic; TSA: tyramide signal amplification; ULK1/2: unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1/2; UVRAG: UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; wt: wild type.
Genes / Markers
Mutation and Transgenics
Human Disease / Model Data
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes
Errata and Notes