ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-180923-1
CTP synthase knockdown during early development distorts the nascent vertebral column and causes fluid retention in multiple tissues in zebrafish
Dzaki, N., Wahab, W., Azlan, A., Azzam, G.
CTP Synthase (CTPS) is a metabolic enzyme that is recognized as a catalyst for nucleotide, phospholipid and sialoglycoprotein production. Though the structural characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of CTPS are well-understood, little is known regarding the extent of its involvement during the early developmental stages of vertebrates. Zebrafish carries two CTPS genes, annotated as ctps1a and ctps1b. Phylogenetic analyses show that both genes had diverged from homologues in the ancestral Actinopterygii, Oreochromis niloticus. Conservation of common CTPS-catalytic regions further establishes that both proteins are likely to be functionally similar to hsaCTPS. Here, we show that ctps1a is more critical throughout the initial period of embryonic development than ctps1b. The effects of concurrent partial knockdown are dependent on ctps1a vs ctps1b dosage ratios. When these are equally attenuated, abnormal phenotypes acquired prior to the pharyngula period disappear in hatchlings (48hpf); however, if either gene is more attenuated than the other, these only become more pronounced in advanced stages. Generally, disruption to normal ctps1a or ctps1b expression levels by morpholinos culminates in the distortion of the early spinal column as well as multiple-tissue oedema. Other effects include slower growth rates, increased mortality rates and impaired structural formation of the young fish's extremities. Embryos grown in DON, a glutamine-analogue drug and CTPS antagonist, also exhibit similar characteristics, thus strengthening the validity of the morpholino-induced phenotypes observed. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of CTPS for the development of zebrafish embryos, as well as a disparity in activity and overall importance amongst isozymes.
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