PUBLICATION

Role of cytonemes in Wnt transport.

Authors
Stanganello, E., Scholpp, S.
ID
ZDB-PUB-171229-8
Date
2016
Source
Journal of Cell Science   129(4): 665-72 (Review)
Registered Authors
Scholpp, Steffen, Stanganello, Eliana
Keywords
Cytoneme, Extracellular transport, Signaling filopodia, Wnt
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Embryonic Development
  • Embryonic Stem Cells/physiology
  • Embryonic Stem Cells/ultrastructure
  • Humans
  • Protein Transport
  • Pseudopodia/physiology*
  • Stem Cell Niche
  • Wnt Proteins/physiology*
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway*
PubMed
26823607 Full text @ J. Cell Sci.
Abstract

Wnt signaling regulates a broad variety of processes during embryonic development and disease. A hallmark of the Wnt signaling pathway is the formation of concentration gradients by Wnt proteins across responsive tissues, which determines cell fate in invertebrates and vertebrates. To fulfill its paracrine function, trafficking of the Wnt morphogen from an origin cell to a recipient cell must be tightly regulated. A variety of models have been proposed to explain the extracellular transport of these lipid-modified signaling proteins in the aqueous extracellular space; however, there is still considerable debate with regard to which mechanisms allow the precise distribution of ligand in order to generate a morphogenetic gradient within growing tissue. Recent evidence suggests that Wnt proteins are distributed along signaling filopodia during vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. Cytoneme-mediated transport has profound impact on our understanding of how Wnt signaling propagates through tissues and allows the formation of a precise ligand distribution in the recipient tissue during embryonic growth. In this Commentary, we review extracellular trafficking mechanisms for Wnt proteins and discuss the growing evidence of cytoneme-based Wnt distribution in development and stem cell biology. We will also discuss their implication for Wnt signaling in the formation of the Wnt morphogenetic gradient during tissue patterning.

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