Cheng, R., Jia, Y., Dai, L., Liu, C., Wang, J., Li, G., Yu, L. (2017) Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate disrupts axonal growth, cholinergic system and motor behavior in early life zebrafish. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 192:7-15.
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) could have neurotoxic effects and alter motor behaviors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TDCIPP at 100, 300, 600, 900μg/L from 2 to 120-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements indicate that TDCIPP exposure significantly elevated spontaneous movement, and altered swimming behavior response of larvae to both light and dark stimulation. Interestingly, in accordance with these motor effects, TDCIPP significantly decreased expression of the neuron-specific GFP in transgenic (HuC-GFP) zebrafish larvae as well as decreased expression of the neural marker genes elavl3 and ngn1, inhibited the axonal growth of the secondary motoneurons and altered the expressions of axon-related genes (α1-tubulin, shha and netrin2) in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, TDCIPP exposure at 900μg/L significantly increased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, and decreased the total acetylcholine (ACh) concentration. Our data indicate that the alteration in motor neuron and inhibition of cholinergic system could together lead to the TDCIPP induced motor behavior alterations in zebrafish larvae.