Saxena, S., Purushothaman, S., Meghah, V., Bhatti, B., Poruri, A., Meena Lakshmi, M.G., Sarath Babu, N., Murthy, C.L., Mandal, K.K., Kumar, A., Idris, M.M. (2016) Role of Annexin gene and its regulation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. 24(3):551-9.
The molecular mechanism of epimorphic regeneration is elusive due to its complexity and limitation in mammals. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a crucial role in development and regeneration. This investigation attempted to reveal the role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and methylation during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It was intriguing to observe that H3K9,14 acetylation, H4K20 trimethylation, H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 dimethylation along with their respective regulatory genes, such as GCN5, SETd8b, SETD7/9 and SUV39h1, were differentially regulated in the regenerating fin at various time points of post-amputation. Annexin genes have been associated with regeneration; this study reveals the significant upregulation of ANXA2a and ANXA2b transcripts and their protein products during the regeneration process. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and PCR analysis of the regulatory regions of the ANXA2a and ANXA2b genes demonstrated the ability to repress two histone methylations, H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, in transcriptional regulation during regeneration. It is hypothesized that this novel insight into the diverse epigenetic mechanisms that play a critical role during the regeneration process may help to strategize the translational efforts, in addition to identifying the molecules involved in vertebrate regeneration.