Suzuki, N., Hanmoto, T., Yano, S., Furusawa, Y., Ikegame, M., Tabuchi, Y., Kondo, T., Kitamura, K.I., Endo, M., Yamamoto, T., Sekiguchi, T., Urata, M., Mikuni-Takagaki, Y., Hattori, A. (2016) Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces apoptosis in osteoclasts: Fish scales are a suitable model for the analysis of bone metabolism by ultrasound. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology. 195:26-31.
Using fish scales in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts coexist on the calcified bone matrix, we examined the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. At 3h of incubation after LIPUS treatment, osteoclastic markers such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K mRNA expressions decreased significantly while mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers, osteocalcin, distal-less homeobox 5, runt-related transcription factor 2a, and runt-related transcription factor 2b, increased significantly. At 6 and 18h of incubation, however, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic marker mRNA expression did not change at least present conditions. Using GeneChip analysis of zebrafish scales treated with LIPUS, we found that cell death-related genes were upregulated with LIPUS treatment. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of apoptosis-related genes also increased significantly. To confirm the involvement of apoptosis in osteoclasts with LIPUS, osteoclasts were induced by autotransplanting scales in goldfish. Thereafter, the DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis was detected in the osteoclasts using the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) method. The multi-nuclei of TRAP-stained osteoclasts in the scales were labeled with TUNEL. TUNEL staining showed that the number of apoptotic osteoclasts in goldfish scales was significantly elevated by treatment with LIPUS at 3h of incubation. Thus, we are the first to demonstrate that LIPUS directly functions to osteoclasts and to conclude that LIPUS directly causes apoptosis in osteoclasts shortly after exposure.