Kitamura, K.I., Takahira, K., Inari, M., Satoh, Y., Hayakawa, K., Tabuchi, Y., Ohgai, K., Nishiuchi, T., Kondo, T., Mikuni-Takagaki, Y., Chen, W., Hattori, A., and Suzuki, N. (2013) Zebrafish scales respond differently to in vitro dynamic and static acceleration: Analysis of interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology. 166(1):74-80.
Zebrafish scales consist of bone-forming osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and calcified bone matrix. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the effects induced by dynamic and static acceleration, we investigated the scale osteoblast- and osteoclast-specific marker gene expression involving osteoblast–osteoclast communication molecules. Osteoblasts express RANKL, which binds to the osteoclast surface receptor, RANK, and stimulates bone resorption. OPG, on the other hand, is secreted by osteoblast as a decoy receptor for RANKL, prevents RANKL from binding to RANK and thus prevents bone resorption. Therefore, the RANK–RANKL–OPG pathway contributes to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis by osteoblasts. Semaphorin 4D, in contrast, is expressed on osteoclasts, and binding to its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts results in suppression of bone formation. In the present study, we found that both dynamic and static acceleration at 3.0 × g decreased RANKL/OPG ratio and increased osteoblast-specific functional mRNA such as alkaline phosphatase, while static acceleration increased and dynamic acceleration decreased osteoclast-specific mRNA such as cathepsin K. Static acceleration increased semaphorin 4D mRNA expression, while dynamic acceleration had no effect. The results of the present study indicated that osteoclasts have predominant control over bone metabolism via semaphorin 4D expression induced by static acceleration at 3.0 × g.