Ding, G., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., Wang, L., Wang, M., Xiong, D., and Sun, Y. (2013) Combined Effects of PFOS and PFOA on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 64(4):668-75.
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are two kinds of emerging contaminants most studied in recent years. However, there is limited information about their combined toxicity to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the single and combined toxicity of PFOA and PFOS to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were investigated. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for the single toxicity. In four mixtures, PFOS and PFOA showed complex interactive effects that changed from additive to synergistic effect, then to antagonistic effect, and at last turnover to synergic effect again, with increased molar ratios of PFOS. Neither the concentration-addition model nor the independent-action model could predict the combined effects when strong interactive effects existed. Although the interactive effects of PFOS and PFOA affected their combined toxicity, the trend of mixture toxicity still showed an increase with increasing molar ratios of PFOS in the mixture.
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