Zhang, L., Li, Y.Y., Chen, T., Xia, W., Zhou, Y., Wan, Y.J., Lv, Z.Q., Li, G.Q., and Xu, S.Q. (2011) Abnormal development of motor neurons in perfluorooctane sulphonate exposed zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicology (London, England). 20(4):643-52.
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental organic pollutant, the potential neurotoxicity of which is causing great concern in fish. In the present study, we examined the effects of PFOS on motor neurons, and investigated the potential toxicological mechanisms oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. Six-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1.0 mg/L PFOS, then we examined the expression of alpha-tubulin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), and peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2) after PFOS exposure until 120 hpf. The results showed that PFOS increased alpha-tubulin in the coccygeal spinal cord (CSC) at 96 hpf, whereas decreased alpha-tubulin in the brain and spinal cord at 120 hpf. PCNA expression was highly increased in CSC and abdomen compared with control at 96 and 120 hpf after PFOS exposure. In addition, PFOS exposure caused CDK5 expression to be highly increased in brain region following by down-regulation of PRX2 expression at 96 hpf. These results indicated that, at least in part, the effect on motor neurons induced by PFOS was mediated by dynamically interfering with the expression of alpha-tubulin and PCNA. Furthermore, PFOS-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress by deregulating CDK5 and PRX2.