Finney, J.L., Robertson, G.N., McGee, C.A., Smith, F.M., and Croll, R.P. (2006) Structure and autonomic innervation of the swim bladder in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The Journal of comparative neurology. 495(5):587-606.
Many teleosts actively regulate buoyancy by using a gas-filled swim bladder, which is thought to be under autonomic control. Here we investigated the swim bladder in the zebrafish to determine possible mechanisms of gas-content regulation. Fluorescently labelled phalloidin revealed myocytes that appeared to form a possible sphincter at the junction of the pneumatic duct and esophagus. Myocytes also formed thick bands along the ventral surface of the anterior chamber and bilaterally along the posterior chamber. Thinner layers of myocytes were located elsewhere. Staining of peroxidase within erythrocytes revealed a putative rete and smaller blood vessels in muscle bands and elsewhere. The antibodies zn-12, a general neuronal marker, and SV2, a synaptic vesicle marker labelling presynaptic terminals, revealed widespread innervation of the swim bladder system. Widespread innervation of the swim bladder was also indicated by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, but choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (-IR) somata and fibers were limited to the junction of the pneumatic duct and esophagus. In contrast, varicose tyrosine hydroxylase-IR fibers innervated muscles and blood vessels throughout the system. Neuropeptide Y-IR somata were located near the junction of the duct and esophagus and varicose fibers innervated muscles and vasculature of the posterior chamber and duct. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity was abundant throughout the anterior chamber but sparsely distributed elsewhere. Serotonin-IR fibers and varicosities were located only along blood vessels near the junction of the pneumatic duct and posterior chamber. Our results suggest that the zebrafish swim bladder is a complex and richly innervated organ and that buoyancy-regulating effectors may be controlled by multiple populations of autonomic neurons. J. Comp. Neurol.