Zodrow, J.M., Stegeman, J.J., and Tanguay, R.L. (2004) Histological analysis of acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 66(1):25-38.
Previous studies have demonstrated that acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by injection leads to inhibition of caudal fin regeneration in zebrafish. Since the TCDD exposure in these studies is systemic, it is possible that pathology in organs other than the fin could result in inhibition of fin regeneration. Therefore, histopathology of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) organs was characterized following abdominal cavity injection of a TCDD dose (70ng/g). The most pronounced histopathologic changes 5 days post-injection included lipidosis and hypertrophy of liver hepatocytes and hypertrophy of gill lamellae. Effects of TCDD exposure on immunolocalization of the zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT2), the heterodimer partner of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2), and an AHR regulated gene cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) was also determined. ARNT2 was immunolocalized to the gastrointestinal tract, gill lamellae, kidney, ventricle of the heart, caudal fin, brain and liver of zebrafish. TCDD exposure had no measurable effect on ARNT2 abundance or localization. CYP1A was immunolocalized in TCDD exposed fish as a biomarker for cells with an activated AHR pathway. CYP1A was not detected in any tissue from vehicle exposed fish. Significant TCDD-dependent induction of CYP1A was detected in the proximal tubules of the kidney, in liver hepatocytes and in the gastrointestinal tract of TCDD exposed fish. Significant but lower TCDD-dependent CYP1A expression was evident in the gill, caudal fin and ventricle of the heart. Overall, TCDD exposure in adult zebrafish leads to histopathology similar to that reported in other fish species, and it appears unlikely that the histopathology in these organs completely explains the inhibition of fin regeneration.